Boric acid, also called hydrogen borate, boracic acid, orthoboric acid and acidum boricum, is a weak acid of boron often used as an antiseptic, insecticide, flame retardant, neutron absorber, or precursor to other chemical compounds. It has the chemical formula H3BO3 (sometimes written B(OH)3), and exists in the form of colorless crystals or a white powder that dissolves in water. When occurring as a mineral, it is called sassolite.
The free acid is found native in certain volcanic districts such as Tuscany, the Lipari Islands and Nevada, issuing, mixed with steam, from fissures in the ground; it is also found as a constituent of many minerals – borax, boracite, boronatrocaicite and colemanite. The presence of boric acid and its salts has been noted in seawater. It also exists in plants and especially in almost all fruits.
Boric acid was first prepared by Wilhelm Homberg (1652–1715) from borax, by the action of mineral acids, and was given the name sal sedativum Hombergi ("sedative salt of Homberg"). However Borates, including boric acid, have been used since the time of the Greeks for cleaning, preserving food, and other activities.
- Na2B4O7·10H2O + 2 HCl → 4 B(OH)3 [or H3BO3] + 2 NaCl + 5 H2O
- B2H6 + 6 H2O → 2 B(OH)3 + 6 H2
- BX3 + 3 H2O → B(OH)3 + 3 HX (X = Cl, Br, I)
Boric acid is soluble in boiling water. When heated above 170 °C, it dehydrates, forming metaboric acid (HBO2):
- H3BO3 → HBO2 + H2OMetaboric acid is a white, cubic crystalline solid and is only slightly soluble in water. Metaboric acid melts at about 236 °C, and when heated above about 300 °C further dehydrates, forming tetraboric acid or pyroboric acid (H2B4O7):
- 4 HBO2 → H2B4O7 + H2O
The term boric acid may sometimes refer to any of these compounds. Further heating leads to boron trioxide.
- H2B4O7 → 2 B2O3 + H2O
Boric acid does not dissociate in aqueous solution as a Brønsted acid, but is a Lewis acid which interacts with water molecules to form the tetrahydroxyborate ion, as confirmed by Raman spectroscopy:
- B(OH)3 + H2O B(OH)−
4 + H+ (Ka = 5.8x10−10 mol/l; pKa = 9.24)
Polyborate anions are formed at pH 7–10 if the boron concentration is higher than about 0.025 mol/L. The best known of these is the tetraborate ion, found in the mineral borax:
- 4 B(OH)−
4 + 2 H+ B4O2−
7 + 9 H2O
Boric acid makes an important contribution to the absorption of low frequency sound in seawater.
Crystalline boric acid consists of layers of B(OH)3 molecules held together by hydrogen bonds. The distance between two adjacent layers is 318 pm.
allows boric acid molecules to form
parallel layers in the solid state
Based on mammalian median lethal dose (LD50) rating of 2,660 mg/kg body mass, boric acid is poisonous if taken internally or inhaled in large quantities. The Thirteenth Edition of the Merck Index indicates that the LD50 of boric acid is 5.14 g/kg for oral dosages given to rats, and that 5 to 20 g/kg has produced death in adult humans. For comparison's sake, the LD50 of salt is reported to be 3.75 g/kg in rats according to the Merck Index.
Long term exposure to boric acid may be of more concern, causing kidney damage and eventually kidney failure (see links below). Although it does not appear to be carcinogenic, studies in dogs have reported testicular atrophy after exposure to 32 mg/kg bw/day for 90 days. This level is far lower than the LD50.
According to boric acid IUCLID Dataset published by the European Commission, boric acid in high doses shows significant developmental toxicity and teratogenicity in rabbit, rat, and mouse fetuses as well as cardiovascular defects, skeletal variations, mild kidney lesions. As a consequence, in August 2008, in the 30th ATP to EU directive 67/548/EEC, the EC decided to amend its classification as reprotoxic category 2 and to apply the risk phrases R60 (may impair fertility) and R61 (may cause harm to the unborn child).
At a recent European Diagnostics Manufacturing Association (EDMA) Meeting, several new additions to the Substance of Very High Concern (SVHC) candidate list in relation to the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and restriction of Chemicals Regulations 2007 (REACH) were discussed. The registration and review completed as part of REACH has meant the current classification of Boric Acid CAS 10043-35-3 / 11113-50-1 as of 1 December 2010 will be listed as H360FD (May damage fertility. May damage the unborn child.)
Boric acid can be used as an antiseptic for minor burns or cuts and is sometimes used in dressings or salves. Boric acid is applied in a very dilute solution as an eye wash. Dilute boric acid can be used as a vaginal douche to treat bacterial vaginosis due to excessive alkalinity. As an antibacterial compound, boric acid can also be used as an acne treatment. It is also used as prevention of athlete's foot, by inserting powder in the socks or stockings, and in solution can be used to treat some kinds of otitis externa (ear infection) in both humans and animals. The preservative in urine sample bottles (red cap) in the UK is boric acid.
Boric acid solutions used as an eye wash or on abraded skin are known to be especially toxic to infants, especially after repeated use because of its slow elimination rate.
Boric acid was first registered in the US as an insecticide in 1948 for control of cockroaches, termites, fire ants, fleas, silverfish, and many other insects. The product is generally considered to be safe to use in household kitchens to control cockroaches and ants. It acts as a stomach poison affecting the insects' metabolism, and the dry powder is abrasive to the insects' exoskeletons.
In combination with its use as an insecticide, boric acid also prevents and destroys existing wet and dry rot in timbers. It can be used in combination with an ethylene glycol carrier to treat external wood against fungal and insect attack. It is possible to buy borate-impregnated rods for insertion into wood via drill holes where dampness and moisture is known to collect and sit. It is available in a gel form and injectable paste form for treating rot affected wood without the need to replace the timber. Concentrates of borate-based treatments can be used to prevent slime, mycelium and algae growth, even in marine environments.
Colloidal suspensions of nanoparticles of boric acid dissolved in petroleum or vegetable oil can form a remarkable lubricant on ceramic or metal surfaces with a coefficient of sliding friction that decreases with increasing pressure to a value ranging from 0.10 to 0.02. Self-lubricating H3BO3 films result from a spontaneous chemical reaction between water molecules and B2O3 coatings in a humid environment. In bulk-scale, an inverse relationship exists between friction coefficient and Hertzian contact pressure induced by applied load.
Boric acid is used in nuclear power plants as a neutron poison to slow down the rate at which fission is occurring. Fission chain reactions are generally driven by the amount of neutrons present (as products from previous fissions). Natural boron is 20% boron-10 and about 80% boron-11. Boron-10 has a high cross-section for absorption of low energy (thermal) neutrons. By adding more boric acid to the reactor coolant which circulates through the reactor, the probability that a neutron can survive to cause fission is reduced. Therefore, changes in boric acid concentration effectively regulate the rate of fission taking place in the reactor. This method is only used in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Boron is also dissolved into the spent fuel pools containing used uranium rods. The concentration is high enough to keep neutron multiplication at a minimum. Boric acid was dumped over Reactor 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant after its meltdown to prevent another reaction from occurring.
The primary industrial use of boric acid is in the manufacture of monofilament fiberglass usually referred to as textile fiberglass. Textile fiberglass is used to reinforce plastics in applications that range from boats, to industrial piping to computer circuit boards.
In electroplating, boric acid is used as part of some proprietary formulas. One such known formula calls for about a 1 to 10 ratio of H3BO3 to [[nickel(II) sulfate|NiSO4]], a very small portion of sodium lauryl sulfate and a small portion of [[sulfuric acid|H2SO4]].
Boric acid, mixed with borax (sodium tetraborate decahydrate) at the weight ratio of 4:5, is highly soluble in water, though they are not so soluble separately. The solution is used for fire retarding agent of wood by impregnation.
Boric acid is one of the most commonly used substances that can neutralize active hydrofluoric acid (HF). It works by forcing the free F- anions into complex salts. This process defeats the extreme toxicity of hydrofluoric acid, particularly its ability to sequester ionic calcium from blood serum which can lead to cardiac arrest and bone decomposition; such an event can occur from just minor skin contact with HF.
Boron is used in pyrotechnics to prevent the amide-forming reaction between aluminium and nitrates. A small amount of boric acid is added to the composition to neutralize alkaline amides that can react with the aluminium.
- ↑ Allen, A. H.; Tankard, A. R. (1904). "The Determination of Boric Acid in Cider, Fruits, etc.". Analyst 29 (October): 301–304. doi:10.1039/an9042900301.
- ↑ Housecroft, C. E.; Sharpe, A. G. (2008). "Chapter 13: The Group 13 Elements". Inorganic Chemistry (3rd ed.). Pearson. p. 340. ISBN 978-0-13-175553-6.
- ↑ Jolly, W. L. (1984). Modern Inorganic Chemistry. McGraw-Hill. p. 198.
- ↑ Underlying Physics and Mechanisms for the Absorption of Sound in Seawater. National Physical Laboratory. Retrieved on 2008-04-21.
- ↑ Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances (2006) (pdf). Report of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) Tolerance Reassessment Eligibility Decision (TRED) for Boric Acid/Sodium Borate Salts. United States Environmental Protection Agency. http://www.epa.gov/oppsrrd1/REDs/boric_acid_tred.pdf. Retrieved 2008-04-21.
- ↑ European Chemical Bureau - ECB. Boric Acid IUCLID Dataset (pdf). European Commission.
- ↑ Boric acid, ACC# 03260 MSDS (2008-02-11). Retrieved on 2009-09-24.[dead link]
- ↑ Ishii, Y.; Fujizuka, N.; Takahashi, T.; Shimizu, K.; Tuchida, A.; Yano, S.; Naruse, T.; Chishiro, T. (1993). "A Fatal Case of Acute Boric Acid Poisoning". Clinical Toxicology 31 (2): 345–352. doi:10.3109/15563659309000402. PMID 8492348.
- ↑ Restuccio, A.; Mortensen, M. E.; Kelley, M. T. (1992). "Fatal Ingestion of Boric Acid in an Adult". American Journal of Emergency Medicine 10 (6): 545–547. doi:10.1016/0735-6757(92)90180-6. PMID 1388380.
- ↑ Duldner, J. E. (2009-01-30). "Boric Acid Poisoning". A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia. MedLine Plus. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002485.htm.
- ↑ NSW Food Authority. Borax and Boric Acid. New South Wales Government. Retrieved on 2009-09-24.
- ↑ http://echa.europa.eu/doc/candidate_list/svhc_supdoc_boric_acid_publication.pdf
- ↑ http://www.deti.ie/employment/chemicalspolicy/clpregulation1272.pdf
- ↑ Abercrombie, P. (2010). "Vaginitis". In Maizes, V.; Low Dog, T.. Integrative Women's Health. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. p. 192. ISBN 978-0-19-537881-8.
- ↑ Harvey, S. C. (1980). "Antiseptics and Disinfectants; Fungicides; Ectoparasiticides". In Gilman, A. G.; Goodman, L. S.; Gilman, A.. Goodman and Gillman's: The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics (6th ed.). p. 971. ISBN 978-0-02-344720-4.
- ↑ Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances (1993) (pdf). R.E.D. Facts: Boric Acid. United States Environmental Protection Agency. http://www.epa.gov/oppsrrd1/REDs/factsheets/0024fact.pdf. Retrieved 2008-04-21.
- ↑ Düzcükoğlu, H.; Acaroğlu, M. (2009). "Lubrication Properties of Vegetable Oils Combined with Boric Acid and Determination of Their Effects on Wear". Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects 32 (3): 275–285. doi:10.1080/15567030802606053.
- ↑ Harpreet Singh. Standard equipments. Punjab State Carrom Association. Retrieved on 2009-09-24.
- ↑ Kistler, R. B.; Helvaci, C. (1994). "Boron and Borates". In D. D. Carr. Industrial Minerals and Rocks (6th ed.). Littleton, CO: SME. pp. 171–186.
- ↑ Tsuyumoto, I.; Oshio, T.; Katayama, K. (2007). "Preparation of Highly Concentrated Aqueous Solution of Sodium Borate". Inorganic Chemistry Communications 10 (1): 20–22. doi:10.1016/j.inoche.2006.08.019.
- ↑ Tsuyumoto, I.; Oshio, T. (2009). "Development of Fire Resistant Laminated Wood Using Concentrated Sodium Polyborate Aqueous Solution". Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology 29 (4): 277–285. doi:10.1080/02773810903033721.
- ↑ METHOD 3052 MICROWAVE ASSISTED ACID DIGESTION OF SILICEOUS AND ORGANICALLY BASED MATRICES (pdf). US EPA.
- ↑ Jock Dempsey (1998, 2009). BORAX. Dempsey's Forge. Retrieved on 2010-07-23.
- ↑ Science Becomes a Toy - Silly Putty
- ↑ Chemicals Used by Hydraulic Fracturing Companies in Pennsylvania for Surface and Hydraulic Fracturing Activities.
- Jolly, W. L. (1991). Modern Inorganic Chemistry (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-112651-1.
- Goodman, L.; Gilman, A.; Brunton, L.; Lazo, J.; Parker, K. (2006). Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. New York: McGraw Hill.
- Boric Acid Technical Fact Sheet - National Pesticide Information Center
- Boric Acid General Fact Sheet - National Pesticide Information Center
- International Chemical Safety Card 0991
- US EPA Pesticide Reregistration Eligibility Decision
- National Pollutant Inventory - Boron and compounds
- Boric acid at ChemicalLand21
- European Chemicals Agency (ECHA)"New Public Consultation on Eight Potential Substances of Very High Concern" - includes Boric Acid. Closes 22nd April 2010
- ChemSub Online: Boric acid
- Boric Acid Specifications - Chemical Supplier