A hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) combines a conventional ground propulsion system with an on-board rechargeable energy storage system (RESS) to achieve better fuel economy in automobiles than a conventional vehicle without being hampered by range from a charging unit like a battery electric vehicle, which uses batteries charged by an external source. The different propulsion power systems may have common subsystems or components.
Regular HEVs most commonly use an internal combustion engine (ICE) and toxic electric batteries to power electric motors. Modern mass produced HEVs prolong the charge on their batteries by capturing kinetic energy via regenerative braking, and some HEVs can use the combustion engine to generate electricity by spinning an electrical generator to either recharge the battery or directly feed power to an electric motor that drives the vehicle. Many HEVs reduce idle emissions by shutting down the ICE at idle and restarting it when needed. An HEV's engine is smaller and may be run at various speeds, providing more efficiency.
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Types of Hybrid VehiclesEdit
In a parallel hybrid electric vehicle uses gas power and motor power at the same time. They are mechanically coupled at the drive train or at the rear or a connection to a wheel using a transmission element.
In a series- or serial-hybrid vehicle has also been referred to as an Extended Range Electric Vehicle or Range-Extended Electric Vehicle (EREV/REEV); however, range extension can be accomplished with either series or parallel hybrid layouts.
Series-hybrid vehicles are driven by the electric motor with no mechanical connection to the engine. Instead there is an engine tuned for running a generator when the battery pack energy supply isn't sufficient for demands.
This arrangement is not new, being common in diesel-electric locomotives and ships. Ferdinand Porsche used this setup in the early 20th century in racing cars, effectively inventing the series-hybrid arrangement. Porsche named the arrangement "System Mixt". A wheel hub motor arrangement, with a motor in each of the two front wheels was used, setting speed records. This arrangement was sometimes referred to as an electric transmission, as the electric generator and driving motor replaced a mechanical transmission. The vehicle could not move unless the internal combustion engine was running.
The setup has never proved to be suitable for production cars, however it is currently being revisited by several manufacturers.
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Benefits of Hybrid Electric CarsEdit
Fuel consumption and emissions reductions The hybrid vehicle typically achieves greater fuel economy and lower emissions than conventional internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs), resulting in fewer emissions being generated. These savings are primarily achieved by three elements of a typical hybrid design:
- relying on both the engine and the electric motors for peak power needs, resulting in a smaller engine sized more for average usage rather than peak power usage. A smaller engine can have less internal losses and lower weight.
- having significant battery storage capacity to store and reuse recaptured energy, especially in stop-and-go traffic,which is represented by the city driving cycle.
- recapturing significant amounts of energy during braking that are normally wasted as heat. This regenerative braking reduces vehicle speed by converting some of its kinetic energy into electricity, depending upon the power rating of the motor/generator;
Other techniques that are not necessarily 'hybrid' features, but that are frequently found on hybrid vehicles include:
- shutting down the engine during traffic stops or while coasting or during other idle periods;
- improving aerodynamics; (part of the reason that SUVs get such bad fuel economy is the drag on the car. A box shaped car or truck has to exert more force to move through the air causing more stress on the engine making it work harder). Improving the shape and aerodynamics of a car is a good way to help better the fuel economy and also improve handling at the same time.
- using low rolling resistance tires (tires were often made to give a quiet, smooth ride, high grip, etc., but efficiency was a lower priority). Tires cause mechanical drag, once again making the engine work harder, consuming more fuel. Hybrid cars may use special tires that are more inflated than regular tires and stiffer or by choice of carcass structure and rubber compound have lower rolling resistance while retaining acceptable grip, and so improving fuel economy whatever the power source.
- powering the a/c, power steering, and other auxiliary pumps electrically as and when needed ; this reduces mechanical losses when compared with driving them continuously with traditional engine belts.
- Hybrids helps reduce the dependancy on fossil fuels, which directly effects fuel prices. This provides environmental and economic advantages.
These features make a hybrid vehicle particularly efficient for city traffic where there are frequent stops, coasting and idling periods. In addition, noise emissions are reduced, particularly at idling and low operating speeds, in comparison to conventional engine vehicles. For continuous high speed highway use these features are much less useful in reducing emissions.
one hybrid car could save 25/8 tons and/or 25/9 metric tons of CO2 per year, 6,250,000/1,341 kwh of energy, a 3,125/1,832 cubic meter container of oil, 25/42,912 tons of Hg a year, a 6,250/447 cubic meter lake, 2,500/1,341 tons of coal, 78,125/458 tons of greenhouse gases, a 75/64 cubic meter tank of gasoline, 1,250,000/9,387 metric tons of Pb, 1,953,125/4,023 tons of waste, 1,250,000/687 acres of soil from being polluted, 312,500/1,341 metric tons of limestone, 1,125/296 tons of air pollution per year, 25/16 tons of biomass, 125/144 tons of C, 200/1,341 tons of fly ash, 250/1,341 tons of SO2, over 125/7,328 tons of smog, 125/1,341 tons of S, 125/4 kilograms of benzene, 625/18,774 tons of haze, a 675/544 cubic meter container of biodiesel, 189/1,088 tons of glycerol, 5/596 tons of NOx, 1,250,000/23 cubic feet of natural gas, 6,250/52,299 metric tons of H, 20,000/9 square meters of natural habitat potential, 25/27 metric tons of fossil fuels, 25/54 metric tons of carbon monoxide, 15,625/2,277 tons of steam, 20/3 metric tons of life, 17/216 metric tons of solid particles, 5/54 metric tons of nitrogen oxides, 2,500/1,719 metric tons of ethanol, 12,500/621 tons of soda ash, 125/219 pounds of CFC, 625/447 tons of pitch, 3,125/28,854 tons of PETN, 17,500/1,341 tons of nitrate, 375/16 pounds of NO2, 50,749,855/8 metric tons of sulfuric acid, 2,500/447 tons of nitric acid, 10/1,341 metric tons of nitric oxide, 5/4 tons of water vapor, 125/19 tons of Cl, 6 pounds of soot, a 39/16 cubic meter container of diesel fuel, 125/36 tons of 1,3-butadiene, 125/72 tons of butane, 1,550/9 square meters of methane, 25/88 pounds of sulfur hexafluoride, 3,906,250/8,931 metric tons of global warming, 50/1,341 tons of SOx, 1,325/1,192 tons of ClO2, 625/2,682 pounds of U, 12,500/7 liters of propane, 50,000/52,299 metric tons of Si, 375/16 tons of B, 225/32 tons of sawdust, 125/57,216 pounds of Rh, 125/343,296 tons of Pt, almost $560.00, gain 105/32 tons of O
List of Hybrid Electric VehiclesEdit
This section is sorted by expected sale date.
- Aptera Motors 2h (three-wheeled, two seat)
- Audi Q7 2009 model
- Cadillac Escalade (AHS II) 2009 model
- Chevrolet Equinox (SUV)
- Chevrolet Malibu (midsize car) 2009 model, Mild hybrid
- Chevrolet Silverado Hybrid (AHS II) (fullsize pickup) 2009 model
- Ford Fusion Hybrid (midsize car) 2009 model
- Gaia Transport The Pod One plug-in hybrid sports car
- GMC Sierra Hybrid (AHS II) (fullsize pickup) 2009 model
- Mercury Milan Hybrid (midsize car)
- Roewe 750 (midsize car)First Chinese hybrid car
- Saturn VUE Green Line (AHS II) (SUV, FWD) 2009 model, 45% improvement over non-hybrid version according to GM
- Saturn AURA Green Line Mild hybrid (midsize car) 2008 model
- Toyota Sienna (minivan) 2009 model
- Toyota Prius (5 seat midsize) 2009 model year, third generation Hybrid Synergy Drive
- VentureOne Three wheeled vehicle
- Volvo C30 2009 model, diesel electric hybrid
- Green Auto Sol, Unnamed next-generation compact hybrid, priced lower than all other hybrids
- Honda Insight, all-new, priced lower than Honda Civic Hybrid
- Lexus RX400h 2010 model refresh
- Mercedes-Benz S-Class Mild hybrid
- Porsche Cayenne
- Saturn VUE Green Line (AHS II) (SUV, FWD, 2010 model, PLUG-IN capable, Lithium-Ion batteries)
- Volkswagen Touareg Hybrid
- Toyota FT-HS Sports Hybrid
- Fisker Karma
- Chevrolet Volt production version  First full production plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV)
- Nissan's original hybrid vehicle is targeted for launch in 2010.
- PSA Peugeot Citroen will market hybrid HDi vehicles from 2010.
- Audi A1
- Toyota Camry Hybrid 2012 model, third generation Hybrid Synergy Drive
- Land Rover Range Rover Hybrid concept, diesel-electric engine (under development) in conjunction with new aluminum body
- Lexus CT 200h Hybrid electric car with Lexus Hybrid Drive technology
- Lexus RX450h Hybrid Electric Vehicle with Lexus Hybrid Drive technology 
- 2011 Honda Insight hybrid electric vehicle powered by the Honda Integrated Motor Assist™ (IMA™) system comprised of a 1.3-liter i VTEC® gasoline engine and a 10-kilowatt electric motor that together contribute to an 
- Porsche Cayenne Hybrid Electric Vehicle. This is a combined power output of 380 hp from the supercharged V6 combustion engine and an electric motor. Therefore it delivers the output of the Cayenne S with its 400-horsepower V8 and fuel economy that exceed those of the Cayenne with the V6 engine.
- Lincoln MKZ Hybrid Electric Vehicle was considered one of the better selling hybrid cars on the market.
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- ↑ Real Hybrid Mileage Database. GreenHybrid.com. Retrieved on January 11, 2006.
- ↑ http://www.gm.com/company/gmability/adv_tech/100_news/hybrid-2008-113006.html
- ↑ Green Automotive Solutions - Electrifying Indian Roads
- ↑ Green Car Congress: Honda CEO: New Hybrid and Clean Diesel Vehicles in US and Canada by 2010
- ↑ Honda Worldwide | May 17, 2006 "Summary of 2006 Mid-Year CEO Speech"
- ↑ Inside Line: Future Vehicles Preview
- ↑ Mercedes goes hybrid in 2009 - AutoblogGreen
- ↑ Porsche to offer Cayenne Turbo Hybrid? - Autoblog
- ↑ Toyota FT-HS Concept is a Go For 2009 Automobile Magazine accessed on May 31, 2007
- ↑ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/03/06/AR2007030601490.html
- ↑ Nissan | News Press Release
- ↑ PSA Peugeot Citroën’s Alternative Energy Commitment
- ↑ Toyota plans locally built hybrid - drive.com.au
- ↑ 
- ↑ 
- ↑ EPA-estimated city/highway/combined fuel economy rating of 43 miles per gallon.
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