A laundry ball or washing ball is a product that is promoted as a substitute for detergent used in laundry. Producers of laundry balls usually make pseudoscientific claims about how these balls work and exaggerate the extent of their benefits.  The product is often sold in home shopping or by participants in multilevel marketing schemes.
While many people report that these balls work, the results are similar to or less effective than washing in water without any detergent. Most of the effect can be attributed to the mechanical effect of the ball or to using hot water instead of cold water. The Federal Trade Commission has taken action against some of the manufacturers of these products because of their misleading claims.
Types of laundry ballEdit
There are several shapes of laundry balls: laundry disks, globes, spheres or doughnuts. The balls carry certain components inside, like ceramic pieces, magnetic material or coloured liquid that is claimed to be "activated water". Manufacturers claim that these components have certain effects on washing efficacy, although studies don't show any difference between the different types of balls. Some balls can be refilled with pellets of special detergent, or other ingredients.
Benefits claimed by manufacturersEdit
Laundry balls are marketed as cheaper, environmentally friendly alternatives to ordinary washing powders or liquids. The manufacturers claim the following benefits, which are real:
- Lack of chemicals which may harm the environment.
- Hypoallergenic and anti-irritation.
- Reduced water usage (because less rinsing is required - this assumes the customer uses a different setting on their washing machine), and use of energy by using cold water (see embodied energy).
- Can be re-used many times before refilling or replacing. This can range from 60 to 2000 wash loads.
but they have also misleadingly claim many benefits that laundry balls don't have:
- Removing stains as effectively as detergents., and germs and bacteria as effectively as detergents., and odors.
- Effective as bleacher., and softener.
- Softening Hard water.
- Changing the pH of water.
The laundry ball could break open during washing, and the ceramic pieces inside it could damage the machinery of the washing machine.
Claimed mechanisms of actionEdit
Manufacturers rarely agree on why their laundry balls work, hinting that these claims are just made up by each individual manufacturer. Some claims are not backed by science, while others are an exaggeration of benefits. Balls that contain detergents may offer more cleaning power than water alone because their ingredients are comparable to normal washing powder, but in smaller quantities. It is claimed that conventional washing powder manufacturers recommend using more powder than is necessary, and that these powders contain unnecessary fillers or fragrances.
The effect of the laundry balls may be explained by simple mechanical action and by the usage of hotter water. Some manufacturers claim that their products reduce energy consumption, but their pamphlets recommend using hot water. Hot water will clean some types of spots better than cold water, leading some people to conclude that the balls worked. The mechanical action of the laundry balls can help clean some types of spots, but a golf ball will achieve the same effect for much less money.
Some manufacturers claim that the components inside their balls emit far infrared rays, which are claimed to reduce the surface tension of water and facilitate washing. The claim of emitting infrared is not false, as all materials emit "far infrared waves" at room temperature, in other words, heat radiation. It is also true that heating reduces the surface tension of water, but the effect of the radiation emitted by the balls is negligible compared to the radiation emitted by the internal walls of the washing machine or by the water, especially if it's hot water.
The claim of alkalization is dubious, while it is true that the alkaline agents in normal washing powders catalyze the tensides, there are no studies suggesting that the washing pearls would affect the pH of the water.
Many products also claim that the balls contain "anti-chlorine" agents which are supposed to neutralize chlorine which has been added to the tap water. Chloride and bleach related substances are actually common in washing powders and chlorine is used in the disinfection of tap water. The claims state that by removing chlorine from the washing water the surface tension is (again) reduced and harmful chlorine can't interact with the clothes.
Magnetic water softeners claim that their magnetic fields can help remove scale from the washing machine and pipes, and prevent new limescale from adhering. Some companies claim to remove hardness ions from hard water, or to precipitate the molecules in the water so they won't "stick" to the pipes, or to reduce the surface tension of water.. The claims are dubious, the scientific basis is unclear, the working mechanism is vaguely defined and understudied, and high-quality studies report negative results. The reputation of these products is further damaged by the pseudoscientific explanations that promoters keep putting forward.
Changes to water structureEdit
Some magnetic products claim that they "change the molecular structure of water", a pseudoscientific claim with no real scientific basis. There is no such thing as "magnetized water". Water is not paramagnetic, which means that water molecules don't align in the presence of a magnetic field. Water is repelled by magnets because it's diamagnetic, but to such a small degree that most instruments can't detect it.
Some balls are refillable with small pellets of detergent which are sold only by the manufacturer of the ball. Critics question whether the amount and type of detergent released by these balls is sufficient to generate significant cleaning effects.[dead link]
In 1997 Trade-Net, sold a laundry ball product (the Blue Laundry Ball) in various US states. After complaints, their claims were investigated by consumer protection departments in Utah, Oregon and Florida, amongst others, and the company was prohibited from making certain claims, including that "that such product cleans as well as conventional laundry detergent". Trade-Net offered a 'new' laundry ball product after this, but were forced to pay fines, including $190,000 to Oregon's Department of Justice, $10,000 to Utah and then in April 1999, $155,000 to the states of New York, Arizona, Arkansas, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Michigan, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, Oklahoma and the FTC. The company disappeared shortly thereafter. The Federal Trade Commission has levied fines against other companies for similar fraudulent claims.
In 2009 the Spanish consumer organization OCU made a study of "ecobolas" (a type of laundry ball marketed in Spain). It compared the efficacy of the laundry ball, normal detergent, and no detergent at all. It concluded that laundry balls were no better than using just water, and it recommended that consumers simply use a minimum amount of detergent.
The U.S. Federal Trade Commission published in 1999 about laundry balls, rings and discs: "Tests show that these gadgets do little more than clean out your wallet. At best, they’re marginally better than washing clothes in hot water alone, and not as effective as washing them with laundry detergent. At worst, the products are completely useless."
On the 15th November, 2011, the Hong Kong Consumer Council published a report on the effect of using washing liquid, washing powder and washing balls. The former two were shown to be effective in removing stains. The washing balls, on the other hand, are as effective in washing out stains as plain water.
Some organizations recommending against their use are Consumers Union, International Fabricare Institute (now called Drycleaning and Laundry Institute), Maytag, Soap and Detergent Association and Spanish OCU.
In February 2011 the Spanish National Institute of Consume (Instituto Nacional del Consumo INC) ordered 14 manufacturers to cease their deceiving advertisement after testing the wash balls and concluding that they are as effective, or even less effective, than washing with water alone. 
By making very vague claims, marketers can continue to sell laundry balls without running afoul of consumer protection laws that require veracity in advertisement.
In August 2012 the Portuguese Consumer Rights Council requested a ban on the washing balls because none of the advantages advertised were proven in tests. 
During the initial marketing boom, balls were manufactured for other market niches, like washing cars.
See also Edit
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 Adams, Cecil (1997-07-25). "Do laundry balls really work?". The Straight Dope. p. 1. http://www.straightdope.com/classics/a4_007b.html. Retrieved 2008-02-25.
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Michael Shermer (January 2004), "Bunkum! Broad-mindedness is a virtue when investigating extraordinary claims, but often they turn out to be pure bunk (Skeptic column)", Scientific American: p. 36
- ↑ 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15 Roahn H. Wynar, "Laundry Balls", in Michael Shermer, Pat Linse, The Skeptic Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience, ABC-CLIO, pp. 130–131
- ↑ 4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 Dorothy Stein (1997-10-27). Laundry Balls. Faculty of Food, Clothing and Hospitality Management at Manchester Metropolitan University. Retrieved on 2010-07-09.
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Sanidad frena el timo de la 'ecobola'. El Instituto Nacional de Consumo requiere a 14 fabricantes que acaben con la publicidad engañosa de estos productos, Público, Ainhoa Iriberri, 5 February 2011, Spanish. "The Instituto Nacional del Consumo (INC) has required the manufacturers of laundry balls (...) (also called ecoballs) to cease their deceiving publicity (...) The requirement has been issued after the making (...) of a study on 14 brands of ecoballs, made to find out the most obvious: if it's true that they are effective to wash clothes. The results of the work offer no doubts: the laundry balls do clean, yes, but the same or even less than water."
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 "Ecobola: como lavar con agua" (in Spanish), Compra Maestra (OCU Organización de Consumidores y Usuarios) (340), September 2009, http://www.ocu.org/equipamiento-del-hogar/ecobola-como-lavar-con-agua-s465574.htm, "[translation] In conclusion, the results of the Ecobola are far from those obtained with detergent. We can well attribute its "washing efficacy" to the mechanical action of the washing machine and to the temperature of the washing water... with which using this product is practically the same as washing only with water. (...) The advice of the OCU: if you want to spend less money and reduce residues, choose one of the detergents recommended in our last analysis and experiment until finding the minimal dosis that gives you good results."
- ↑ 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 Cheryl Mendelson (2005), Laundry: the home comforts book of caring for clothes and linens (illustrated ed.), Simon and Schuster, pp. 82, 83, ISBN 0-7432-7145-9, 9780743271455, http://books.google.com/books?id=6-gRK9HMQKoC
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 More on green washing.... grownupgreen (2006-11-17). Retrieved on 2010-07-09.
- ↑ 9.0 9.1 EcoBalls — Are they for real? | Ramblings of a Geek. Jeremy Johnstone (2008-05-11). Retrieved on 2010-07-09.
- ↑ 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 10.8 Stephen Lower. Magnetic water treatment pseudoscience. Chem1.com. Retrieved on 2011-01-03.
- ↑ 11.0 11.1 11.2 FTC Consumer Alert (4/1/1999), Wash Daze: Laundry Gadgets Won't Lighten the Load, http://www.bbb.org/us/article/ftc--wash-daze-laundry-gadgets-wont-lighten-the-load-4445
- ↑ Stephen Lower, Magnetized water: pseudoscientific snake oil, Chem1.com, http://www.chem1.com/CQ/magwatscams.html, retrieved 2011-12-19
- ↑ Marketers of Laundry Detergent Substitutes Charged with Making False and Unsubstantiated Claims Agree to Settlements with FTC and Eleven States. Federal Trade Commission (April 22, 1999).
- ↑ Sources:
- Erwin Richard Annau - Stipulated Final Judgment. Ftc.gov. Retrieved on 2010-07-09.
- Circuit court of Oregon, Marion county (12 September 1997), Case 97C14017. Assurance of voluntary compliance, Oregon Department of Justice, archived from the original on 17 December 2005, http://web.archive.org/web/20051217221930/http://www.doj.state.or.us/FinFraud/97C14017.htm
- ↑ See for example: Dallas Marketers of Laundry Detergent Substitute Charged with Making False and Unsubstantiated Claims Agree to Settlement with FTC and Six States. Federal Trade Commission (July 1, 1999).
- ↑ Cleaning Power of Washing Balls No Better Than Plain Water - CHOICE # 421 (November 15, 2011). Hong Kong Consumer Council (2011-11-15). Retrieved on 2012-05-03.
- ↑ DECO exige retirada do mercado das "ecobolas", 'Diário de Notícias
- Do laundry balls really work?, July 25, 1997, The Straight Dope
- The ABI Laundry Ball and The Laundry Solution and The Laundry Clean Disk & about twenty others just like them!, entry in The Skeptic's Dictionary
- Laundry Discs Aired on Market Place, November 17, 1998, CBC News, Marketplace program on scams section.