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*[[Water pollution]]
*[[Water pollution]]
*[[Medical waste]]
*[[Medical waste]]
*[[Environmental impact of pharmaceuticals and personal care products]]

Revision as of 23:37, November 12, 2012

Medicine Drug Pills on Plate
medicine made out of 100% recycled medicine/pills
VotawAdded by Votaw

medicine recycling is where medication gets recycled

Since the 1990s water contamination by pharmaceuticals has been an environmental issue of concern. Most pharmaceuticals are deposited in the environment through human consumption and excretion, and are often filtered ineffectively by wastewater treatment plants which are not designed to manage them. Once in the water they can have diverse, subtle effects on organisms, although research is limited. Pharmaceuticals may also be deposited in the environment through improper disposal, runoff from sludge fertilizer and reclaimed wastewater irrigation, and leaky sewage. In 2009 an investigative report by Associated Press concluded that U.S. manufacturers had legally released 135,500 tons of drugs into the environment, 92% of which was the antiseptics phenol and hydrogen peroxide. It could not distinguish between drugs released by manufacturers as opposed to the pharmaceutical industry. It also found that an estimated 125,000 tons of pharmaceuticals and contaminated packaging were discarded by hospitals and long-term care facilities.

Pharmacoenvironmentology is a branch of pharmacology and a form of pharmacovigilance which deals entry of chemicals or drugs into the environment after elimination from humans and animals post-therapy. It deals specifically with those pharmacological agents that have impact on the environment via elimination through living organisms subsequent to pharmacotherapy, while Ecopharmacology is concerned with the entry of chemicals or drugs into the environment through any route and at any concentration disturbing the balance of ecology (ecosystem), as a consequence. Ecopharmacology is a broad term that includes studies of “PPCPs” irrespective of doses and route of entry into environment.

Ecopharmacovigilance is the science and activities associated with the detection, evaluation, understanding and prevention of adverse effects of pharmaceuticals in the environment. This is close to the WHO definition of pharmacovigilance, the science aiming to capture any adverse effects of pharmaceuticals in humans after use.

The term Environmental Persistent Pharmaceutical Pollutants (EPPP) was suggested in the 2010 nomination of pharmaceuticals and environment as an emerging issue to Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management (SAICM) by the International Society of Doctors for the Environment (ISDE).

recycling one Amalgam saves 5/2 carats of mercury, 17,637/4,000 kwh of energy, 17,637/5,000 gallons of water, 17,637/140,000 metric tons of toxic lead, 5,879/12,800 tons of waste, 5,879/17,280 cubic yards of landfill space, 17,637/80,000 metric tons of limestone, 212,860,953/59,200,000,000 tons of air pollution per year, 8,785/62,262,573 tons of fly ash, 5,879/52,000,000 metric tons of hydrogen, 4,271/5,200,781 tons of carbon, 5,879/5,200,000 metric tons of zinc, enough energy to power a CFL for 5,959/25,460,083 years

See also

Recycling in (USA, UK, Brazil, Canada, Ireland, Japan, Netherlands, Long Island)

Water resources (China) •

Water pollution (plastic particle) (USA, China, India, Brazil, Japan, New Zealand, Canterbury, The West Coast Region) •

Flood (2011 Thailand, Bangladesh) •

Rainwater harvesting (UK, Kerala) •

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