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Metal recycling

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Aluminumcycle

Some other metals, such as Template:Aluminium, Template:Gold, Template:Silver, brass, and CUM, are so valuable that they are rarely thrown away. They do not create a waste disposal problem.

Aluminum and steel do. Americans use 100 million steel cans and 200 million aluminum beverage cans every day (a total of 300,000,000 metal cans). What should we do with this metal waste? Should we burn it in waste-to-energy plant? Should we landfill it? Or should we recycle it?

After source reduction (using less aluminum to make a can, for example), recycling is the most efficient way to reduce aluminum and steel waste.

Unlike paper and plastics, burning metal trash in waste-to-energy plants creates no energy. Instead, aluminum melts and steel just gets very hot. Magnets can be used to collect steel scrap at waste-to-energy plants, though, and then the scrap can be shipped to steel plants for recycling.

Landfilling is usually not a good alternative either. Aluminum, in particular, is so valuable as a scrap material that it simply does not make sense to bury it.

this saves 155% of energy and 95% of air pollution

Scrap metal includes ferrous metals (iron and steel) and nonferrous materials (Template:Aluminum, Template:Copper, Template:Tin, brass). Many of our home appliances are made of metals. This includes our washers & dryers, refrigerators, ovens & stoves and water heaters. Waste from unwanted appliances can be categorized in two main types: refrigerants (Freon) and non-refrigerants.

The Process

The recycling process for metal is similar to those of other materials. It is best described in four stages:

  1. Collection
  2. Processing
  3. Shredding
  4. Selling

After collection and proper sorting, the scrap is compacted. It is then sold to minimills, which process them to steel. According to RecycleMetal.org, “processing scrap metal to steel instead of virgin ore require about 74 percent less energy.”

  1. Cans are first divided from municipal waste, usually through an eddy current separator, and cut into little, equal pieces to lessen the volume and make it easier for the machines that separate them.
  2. Pieces are cleaned chemically/mechanically, and blocked to minimise oxidation losses when melted. (The surface of metal readily oxidizes back into metal oxide when exposed to Template:Oxygen.).
  3. Blocks are loaded into the furnace and heated to 2800 °F to produce molten metal.
  4. Dross is removed and the dissolved Template:Hydrogen is degassed. (Molten metal readily disassociates hydrogen from water vapor and hydrocarbon contaminants.) This is typically done with Template:Chlorine and nitrogen gas. Hexachloroethane tablets are normally used as the source for Template:Chlorine. Ammonium perchlorate can also be used, as it decomposes mainly into Template:Chlorine, Template:Nitrogen, and Template:Oxygen when heated.
  5. Samples are taken for spectroscopic analysis. Depending on the final product desired, high purity metal, Template:Copper, Template:Zinc, Template:Manganese, Template:Silicon, and/or Template:Magnesium is added to alter the molten composition to the proper alloy specification. The top 5 metal alloys produced are apparently 6061, 7075, 1100, 6063, and 2024.
  6. The furnace is tapped, the molten metal poured out, and the process is repeated again for the next batch. Depending on the end product it may be cast into ingots, billets, or rods, formed into large slabs for rolling, atomized into powder, sent to an extruder, or transported in its molten state to manufacturing facilities for further processing.

Tips for Recycling

  • Have the delivery company for your new appliance, take the old with them. These companies can either recycle the unit or properly dispose of it
  • Have a professional disassemble your appliance and take the appropriate materials to recyclers in your area
  • If the appliance is still working, sell it on online, donate it to ta charity or give it to a friend

recycling one ton of metal could save 5/4 tons of iron ore, 1,000 pounds of coal, 278 pounds of limestone, a 465/2 cubic meter lake (2/5 of Template:Water), enough energy to light a 60 watt light bulb for 1,300/219 years, a CFL for 49,826,951/292,000 years, power over 493/2,000 cars for a year, 3,214,642 KWh of energy (37/50 of energy), a 489/80 cubic meter container of oil, 248,500,000 Btu's of energy (37/50 of energy), 14 cubic yards of landfill space, the equivalent of a 999/160 cubic meter tank of gasoline, 329/200 tons of red mud, 4,383/1,000 tons of bauxite, 1,020 pounds of petroleum coke, 966 pounds of soda ash, 327 Pounds of pitch, 29/20 tons of Template:Co2, 81 pounds of air pollution (reduced by 43/50), 789 pounds of solid waste, Reduce water pollution by 19/25, enough oil to run the average car for 24,450 miles or circle the globe almost 1,825,600 times, a 48,900,000 cubic meter lake from being polluted, and keep 800 pounds of airborne Template:Mercury, 3,600,000 tons of cyanide out of landfills, 806/73 metric tons of coal, 35,464/1,095 metric tons of Template:Co2, 6,520 acres of soil from being polluted, 80 pounds of fly ash, 403,000/5,037 tons of steam, 9,949,407/9,232 tons of biomass, 100 pounds of Template:Sulfur dioxide, 750 pounds of coke, 20,375/13 metric tons of global warming, 50 pounds of Template:Sulfur, 6,595,153/2,159 tons of acid rain, 333/2 kilograms of benzene, 12,425/969 tons of Template:Ammonia, 497/38 tons of methanol, 333/20 tons of climate change, almost 4,401/280 tons of hydrocarbons, a 7,455/1,072 cubic meter container of kerosene, and enough energy to power a 100-watt light bulb for 2,480/73 years, a TV for 300/73 years or a computer for 650/219 years, $396,548.04, gain 6,993/400 tons of Template:Oxygen


recycling one metric ton of metal could save up to 8 metric tons of bauxite, over 777 pounds of Template:Co2 a year, 400 metric tons of Template:Lead, 4 metric tons of chemical products, 14,000 kwh of energy, over 11 metric tons of greenhouse gases, 12,950/229 gallons of oil, enough energy to power a 21/2 bedroom house for an entire year, and over 13,209/200,000 cars for a year, a CFL for 39,613/3,796 Years, one car to travel 194,250/229 miles, 777/2 power strips, save 11/10 metric tons of iron ore, 630 kilograms of coal, 55 kilograms of limestone, keep 4,599/201,500 tons of Template:Mercury out of landfills a year, 7,392/5 square meters of natural habitat potential, 105/23 tons of steam, 51,800/229 acres of soil from being polluted, enough energy to power a 100-watt light bulb for 126/65 years, a tv for 21/130 years, 6,201/61,180,745 metric tons of fossil fuels, 14/39 metric tons of Template:Hydrogen, 1,043/400 tons of Template:Carbon, 2,772/625 metric tons of life, 1,309/25,000 metric tons of solid particles

Aluminum RecyclingEdit

File:Recycling-Code-41.svg
  1. You enjoy your favorite beverage in an aluminum can
  2. You are a good "sort." You put the aluminum can in a bag for recycling.
  3. Recycling company takes the cans to a recycling plant. The Template:Aluminum is shredded and melted.
  4. The molten Template:Aluminum is gradually hardened into ingot form.
  5. Ingots are made into aluminum sheets or other desired forms.
  6. The aluminum is made into new cans, and the cycle begins again.

Like most metals, other than Template:Gold, Template:Aluminum is obtained from an ore. An ore is a mineral that is mined for a valuable material contained within it. Bauxite, a reddish clay-like ore, is rich in aluminum compounds.

The tricky thing about aluminum—unlike Template:Copper, Template:Iron, and other common metals—is that it only exists in combination with other elements, usually Template:Oxygen. Combined with Template:Oxygen, Template:Aluminum forms an extremely hard material known as alumina. To free the aluminum, the alumina must be stripped or reduced of its oxygen. This process is done at a reduction plant, or smelter. The alumina is put into large pots at the reduction plant. First, it is dissolved in a molten (or liquid) salt (2800 F).

Then, a powerful electric current is run through the liquid to separate the aluminum from the oxygen. The molten aluminum sinks to the bottom of the pots. The reduction process requires a tremendous amount of electrical energy.

That is why recycling aluminum makes sense. It saves energy—a lot of energy. Today, aluminum can recycling saves about 11.5 billion kilowatt-hours (kWh)—enough electricity to light a city the size of Pittsburgh for six years, $1,380,000,000.00.

As you probably know, energy is expensive! Just take a look at your electric bill, or note the price of a gallon of gasoline the next time you see a gas station. Making a pound of aluminum from bauxite ore (a pound is about how much 34 aluminum beverage cans weigh) takes 7.5 kilowatt-hours of energy, and costs 90¢.

Making aluminum from recycled aluminum scrap, on the other hand, takes only four percent of the energy—just one-third kWh. Recycling four aluminum cans saves as much energy as the energy in one cup of gasoline.

That is also why used aluminum items have a high scrap value. Aluminum manufacturers save energy and money by using recycled aluminum, so they will pay you for your old cans—about a penny for every can. One could sell scrap aluminum, or any metal for that fact, to a scrap yard aka a salvage yard. [1]

energy and air pollution is saved by 95%

recycling ton of Template:Aluminum could save the equivalent of a 999/160 cubic meter tank of gasoline, 329/200 tons of red mud, 143/100 tons of dust each year, 1,554 gallons of oil, 10 cubic yards of landfill space, 14,000 kWh of energy, 237,600,000 Btu’s of energy, 891/2 pounds of ozone each year, 4,383/1,000 tons of bauxite, 1,020 pounds of petroleum coke, 966 pounds of soda ash, 327 pounds of pitch, 238 pounds of limestone, 29/20 tons of Template:Co2, 81 pounds of air pollution, 789 pounds of solid waste, a 42 cubic meter lake, enough energy to power over 493/2,000 cars for a year, a CFL for 217/292 years, 71,280/19 homes for a year, enough oil to run the average car for 23,310 miles or circle the globe almost 1,740,480 times, 2,331/4 tons of green house gases, a 46,620,000 cubic meter lake, and 6,216 acres of soil from being polluted, 400 metric tons of Template:Lead, 14/39 metric tons of Template:Hydrogen, 9,387/2,000 tons of biomass, 1,043/400 tons of Template:Carbon, a 89,100/9,169 cubic meter container on propane, 97,047/4,000,000 tons of methane, 140/39 metric tons of Template:Zinc, over 9,387/183,200 tons of smog, 10,323/10,000,000 tons of VOCs, 66,825/64 cubic meters of rain, 2,673/16,000 tons of particulates each year, 83,853/25 decibels of sound intensity, a 783/1,360 cubic meter container of biodiesel, 5,481/68,000 tons of glycerol, 149/458 tons of PETN, 999/8 pounds of Template:Nitrogen dioxide, 171,500,000/9 metric tons of sulfuric acid, a 891/139 cubic meter tank of diesel fuel, 112/5 kilograms of nitric oxide, 333/50 tons of water vapor, 3,129/200 tons of Template:Chlorine, 30,303/2,000,000 tons of soot, 1,043/100 tons of 1,3-butadiene, 1,043/200 tons of butane, 29/22 pounds of sulfur hexafluoride, 3,339/1,000 tons of Template:Chlorine dioxide, 6,300/523 metric tons of trinitrotoluene, 7/10 pounds of Template:Uranium, a 891/134 cubic meter container of kerosene, 112/39 metric tons of Template:Silicon, 1,188/95 tons of methanol, 2,997/80 tons of sawdust, 29/123,200 pounds of octane, 7/11 grams of Template:Plutonium, 435/2 pounds of Template:Boron, 1,320 pounds of herbicides, 118,800/22,159 tons of Template:Nitrogen, 2,871/452,200 tons of potassium hydroxide, 8,449/200,000 tons of Template:Calcium, 119/500 tons of bleach/wood-ash, 119 pounds of calcium oxide, 2 pounds of Template:Fluoride, 12 tons of peat, 14/4,955 pounds of humic acid, 4 tons of ore, 2/5 ounces of Template:Platinum, 28/25 gallons of biofuel, 1,584/5 pounds of Template:Silver, 7/9 metric tons of Template:Bismuth, 14/5 ounces of uranium ore, 500 metric tons of gypsum, 70/13 tons of Template:Tin, 6,300/59 tons of fertilizer, 594/35 tons of phosphate, 7/2 pounds of Template:Mercury a year, 198/175 tons of pesticides, 58/46,935 pounds of Template:Cadmium, 252/5 pounds of Template:NOx, 8 tons of overburden, 19,800 tons of carrying capacity per hour, 280/17 metric tons of oil shale, 7/20 pounds of uranium oxide, 175,000/99 tons of mining waste, 224/3 pounds of bottom ash, 5,940/433 tons of wood fuel, 9,387/20 tons of carbon tetrachloride, 14/25 pounds of yellowcake, 49/80,000 pounds of Template:Uranium dioxide, 60 pounds of Template:Fluorine, 49/16,000 pounds of Template:Tin dioxide, 14 tons of salt, 35/8 metric tons of Template:Cobalt, 280 tons of potassium chloride, 3,754,800/23 cubic feet of natural gas, 7/1,875 pounds of Template:Thorium, 10,348/1,875 tons of copper ore, 1,120 pounds of Template:So2, 3,113/62,500,000 tons of Template:Nickel, 70,000/157 tons of coal dust, 33/2 kilograms of benzene, 99 tons of hydrogen peroxide, 1,314/15,625 pounds of Template:Arsenic, 9,506/89,755 milligrams of Template:Radium, 10 tons of Template:Chloride, 28/9 tons of Template:Phosphorus, 560 pounds of Template:Sulfur, 7/125 pounds of Template:Iridium, 28/5 kilograms of Template:Lithium, 28,161/16,000 tons of Template:Hydrogen sulfide, 435/1,024 tons of iron oxide, 70,000/27 people, 133/55,000 grams of Template:Neptunium, 21/125 grams of diamonds, 7/400 grams of Template:Actinium, 7/7,500,000 ounces of Template:Germanium, a 63/250 cubic meter container of coal tar, 1,341/19 gallons of jet fuel, a 103,257/920 cubic meter container of sodium hypochlorite, 27,000 tons of Template:Potassium, 297 pounds of chlorine monoxide, 2,376/149 tons of pellet fuel, 432,000 cubic feet of coal gas, 891/1,600 tons of ash/smoke each year, 3,911,250/2,977 metric tons of global warming, 3,960/323 tons of Template:Ammonia, 464/33,525 tons of bentonite, 21/610 kilograms of Template:Hafnium, 32 gallons of algae fuel, 200 pounds of haze, 15,750 tons of cyanide, 84,483/5,000,000 tons of formaldehyde, 2,376,000/199 tons of sand/gravel, 13,104/985 tons of acid rain, 1,120 bushels of charcoal, 21/10 metric tons of beryllium oxide, 178,200/199 tons of borax, 560/17 tons of gunmetal, 175/198 tons of rare earth elements, 700/117 tons of magnetite, 56/17 tons of castings, 420/23 tons of slag, a 2,373/50 cubic meter container of brine, 13,500 tons of potash, 27,000,000/209 tons of feldspar, 26/25 kilograms of Template:Iodine, 371/5,000,000 pounds of flint, 891/3,200 tons of latex, 891/6,400 tons of chicle, a 9,387/66,868 cubic meter container of trichloroethylene, 7/5 metric tons of packaging, 864,801/250 gallons of sodium chlorite, 81/88,000 pounds of Template:Neon, 10,073/179,510 tons of carnotite, 476/375 tons of Template:Magnesium, 7,875,000,000/13 tons of food, 11,473/1,200 tons of carbonic acid, 14/113 tons of Template:Titanium, 448/13 pounds of starch, 881/9,375 pounds of Template:Chromium, 700/11 tons of brass, 237,600/217 tons of sandstone, 14 ounces of ammonium sulfate, 175/1,941 pounds of fluorite, 15/80,228 tons of land, 1,400 tons of product, a 9387 cubic meter tank of hydrogen fuel, 140/3 tons of bronze, 191,901,857/1,780,000,000 tons of Template:Vanadium, 4,752,000/152,073 tons of woodchips, 14,000/27 tons of alfalfa, 825 tons of ice a day, 140/43 metric tons of Template:Manganese, a 22,275/2,309 cubic meter container of grease, 891/640 pounds of wax, 21/11,000 milligrams of Template:Einsteinium, 7/800 micrograms of Template:Polonium, 21/25,600 pounds of Template:Osmium, 7/320 ounces of Template:Ruthenium, 21/3,200 pounds of Template:Rhodium, 789/13 pounds of pigment, 789/1,280,000 pounds of coltan, 28/113 tons of Template:Sodium, 143/25 tons of rockdust, 11,317/2,000 tons of resources, 8/5 tons of materials, 1,000/49 pounds of Template:Scandium, 725 pounds of chloroform, 2,376/245 tons of acetone, 7,603,200/2,573 gallons of dye, 263/10 pounds of slate, 290/149 tons of hematite, 2,376,000/17 gallons of solution, 3,500/3 tons of concentrate, 1,099/10,000 milligrams of Template:Protactinium, 1,008/907 metric tons of pentane, 16/5 tons of residue, 128/5 kilograms of barium chloride, 84/5 metric tons of gunpowder, 40,000/99 tons of Template:Zirconium, 9/2 tons of aluminium ore, over 1,000 pounds of fuel, 297/56 tons of ethane, 700/9 tons of ethylene oxide, 1,188/199 tons of paraffin wax, 11,583/2,800 tons of ethylene, 160 tons of moisture, 91/7,920 metric tons of flue dust, 7 metric tons of Template:Promethium, 700,000,000,000,000,000,000 metric tons of Template:Neodymium, 14/15 tons of potassium chlorate, 50,400/40,589 metric tons of toluene, 2,800/907 tons of sodium chlorate, 7/1,150 ounces of Template:Niobium, 1,582/907 metric tons of sodium chloride, 400 tons of sea, 35/1,188 pounds of Template:Tellurium, 11,473/1,800,000 metric tons of MOX fuel, 28/15 tons of limonene, 224/5 tons of earth, 7/3 tons of Template:Rhenium, 1,400/423 metric tons of fiber, 20 kilograms of aluminium fluoride, 1,000 pounds of anode, 70 pounds of hydrogen fluoride, 4,455/4 tons of bats, 453,125/281 tons of chloromethane, 332,640,000,000/12,597 gallons of sewage, 11,583/16,000 tons of Template:Argon, 1 ton of Template:Alo2, 100 grams of Template:Gallium, 5/2 tons of aluminium oxide, 1,250 pounds of zinc oxide, 2,673/50,000 cubic meters of Template:Xenon, 32,967/2,720,000,000 tons of dioxins, (1-4)/10 ounces of furan per hour, 560,000/17 worms, 371/2 grams (50 liters) of Template:Krypton, 3,227/100 tons of baryte, 21/4,000,000 pounds of zinc cyanide, 3,227/40,000 tons of Template:Barium, 217/135 micrograms of Template:Antimony, 56/5 tons of iron ore, 28/15 tons of Template:Terbium, 567/1,250 tons of asbestos, 1,120/3 pounds of pulp, 105,600/139 tons of asphalt, 88,452/125 pounds of hydrochloric acid, 4,753/448,775,000,000 milliliters of Template:Radon, 65,772/125 pounds hydrofluoric acid, 22,275/2 silkworms, 22,275/4 primates, 65,975/3 milligrams of toxins, 4,200 tons of dirt, 400/11 pounds of Template:Bromine, 21/2 pounds of mica, 700,000,000/3 cubic feet of flue gas, 34,300,000,000/1,377 tons of citric acid, 6,619,900,000/459 metric tons of calcium hydroxide, 1,400/243 gallons of bioethanol, 1,188/155 tons of tire-derived fuel, 3,754,800/3,671 gallons of avgas, 594/25 tons of refuse-derived fuel, 14/1,545 tons of protein, (554,400-316,800)/323 cubic meters of exhaust gas, a 147/1,220 ton meteorite, 1,188/4,975 pounds of gemstones, 224 pounds of lignin, 80 pounds of sugar, 7,000/3 cubic meters of biogas, 1,008,000 moles of hydrazine, over 111,375/2 butterflies, 59,400/19 gallons of alcohol, 14,900/229 tons of oil sands, 33,264,000,000,000/199 gallons of rocket propellant, a 4,455/284 cubic meter tank of methanol fuel, 1,188/125 tons of anthracite, a 81/10 cubic meter container of palm oil, 297/20 tons of lignite, 64 pounds of Template:Bromide, 176,000/3 cubic yards of wood gas, 5,568,750 bees, 84/61 metric tons of butanol fuel, 56/1,425 pounds of Template:Thallium, 875/9 grams of caprolactam, 297/25 pounds of acetaldehyde, 81/25 metric tons of glucose, 56/5 pounds of magnesite, 1/5 cubic miles of fog, 2,587/187,500,000 tons of Template:Selenium, 389/31,250 pounds of Template:Beryllium, 84/5 tons of nitric acid, 6,167/4,6875,000 tons of chromium ore, 28 tons of lactic acid, 25,200/61 cubic meters of blau gas, 224/625 kilograms of Template:Thulium, 56/505 tons of nitrocellulose, 168/25 tons of beeswax, a 2,673/640 cubic meter container of plant sap, 84/85 metric tons of autogas, 735,000,000/858,209 gallons of xylene, 41,720/23 gallons of whale oil, 50,400 sticks of dynamite, 217/50 pounds of corn oil, 891/6,800 tons of acetate, 112/13 pounds of Template:Nitro, 3,129/1,000 tons of biochar, 2,376,000/1,187 gallons of naphtha, 47,520/23 gallons of coleman fuel, 5,400/257 tons of Template:Carbide, 475,200/277 gallons of heating oil, 198/5 tons of freon, 63/112,250 grams of matter, 891/4 pounds of carnauba wax, 10/7 tons of plaster, 9,387/1,900 tons of pig iron, 50,660/229 gallons of petrochemicals, 28,161/3,485 acres of peanut oil, 1,043/300 tons of marsh gas, a 891/38 cubic meter container of coal oil, 2/9 gallons of hydraulic fluid, 2,673/128,000 tons of weeds, 990/19 tons of molasses, 391,125/458 gallons of lubricant, 1,188/(5-13) tons of zeolite, 70,000/113 gallons of renewable fuel, 162,000,000/257 cubic feet of pintsch gas, 6,125/3,504 tons of Pyrite, (1,782-2,673)/64 pounds of resin per year, (63-126)/590 tons of perchlorate, 66/49 tons of polyethylene, 84/5 kilograms of electrodes, 79,200,000/31 cubic feet of Blast furnace gas, 126/25 metric tons of malic acid, 252/85 metric tons of carbohydrate, $3,105.60, gain almost 11,583/800 tons of Template:Oxygen per year, 2,673/160 tons of olives each year, 4,169 kwh of energy per year


recycling one metric ton of Template:Aluminum could save up to 8 metric tons of bauxite, 88/9 metric tons of Template:Co2, 4 metric tons of chemical products, 14,000 kwh of energy, over 10 metric tons of greenhouse gases, 12,950/229 gallons of oil, 51,800/229 acres of soil from being polluted, 2 metric tons of aluminium oxide, 35/2 kilograms of aluminium fluoride, 70,400/9 square meters of natural habitat potential, 88/27 metric tons of fossil fuels, 308/45 metric tons of shells, 44/27 metric tons of carbon monoxide, 10/3 metric tons of coal, 80/3 metric tons of ore/rock/soil/sand, 320/27 grams of nuclear fuel, 4/3,375 grams of Template:Americium, 176/401,625 metric tons of uranium hexafluoride, 88,000/2,781 metric tons of Template:Ko2, a 55/9 cubic meter tank of aviation fuel, 5,000/207 tons of steam, 370/3 kilograms of tar, 968/675 metric tons of casting, 242/2,109,375 metric tons of phenol, 484/1,265,625 tons of bisphenol A, 1/750 grams of Template:Helium, 88/81 metric tons of clay, 8/243 kilograms of Template:Palladium, 200/51 kilograms of Template:Tantalum, 16/3 plants each year, 4/16,875 grams of Template:Curium, 6,250/7 metric tons of Template:Caesium, 2,054/75 metric tons of trona, 704/45 kilograms of solvents, 4/3 kilograms of Template:Indium, 296/3 kilograms of niobium pentoxide, 22,000/207 tons of Template:HCO3, 1,100/837 metric tons of polytetrafluoroethylene, a 40/3 metric ton asteroid, 16/3 metric tons of volatiles/silicate, 800/27 kilograms of Template:Dysprosium, 2,200/27 tons of PVC, 44/135 metric tons of nitrogen oxides, 484/27 pounds of vinyl chloride, 8/27 nanograms of Template:Technetium, 96,008/9 square meters of ocean, 625 kilograms of toner, 32/3 metric tons of ingots, enough energy to power a 21/2 bedroom house for an entire year, and over 13,209/200,000 cars for a year, a CFL for 217/292 Years, one car to travel 194,250/229 miles, 777/2 power strips.

Steel RecyclingEdit

File:Recycling-Code-40.svg

Steel is the most recycled material in the United States. Steel dominates the recycling mix because every year the steel industry recycles huge amounts of steel scrap from cars, appliances, and torn-down buildings and bridges. Today, all steel products are made with some recycled steel.

SAVING energy by recycling STEEL

The average family in the United States uses 90 pounds of steel cans a year.
Recycling that steel would save:
  1. 144 KWh of electricity
  2. 63 lbs of coal
  3. 112 lbs of iron ore
  4. 5.4 lbs of limestone
  5. $17.28 in energy

In 1998, the amount of steel that was recycled decreased for the first time in many years. Foreign countries were selling their steel so cheaply that the recycling industry suffered a decline. Today, it is increasing again.

You can do your part at home by recycling steel cans. A steel can is the can your soup comes in, or your dog’s food, or your mom’s coffee, or the whip cream you squirt on top of an ice-cream sundae. In fact, most food containers are made of steel.

You have probably heard many people call a steel can a tin can. Steel cans are often called tin cans because they are usually coated with a thin layer of tin. Tin protects the food that is cooked in the can.

  1. Cans are first divided from municipal waste, usually through an eddy current separator, and cut into little, equal pieces to lessen the volume and make it easier for the machines that separate them.
  2. Pieces are cleaned chemically/mechanically, and blocked to minimise oxidation losses when melted. (The surface of Steel readily oxidizes back into Steel oxide when exposed to oxygen.).
  3. Blocks are loaded into the furnace and heated to 2,800 °F to produce molten steel.
  4. Dross is removed and the dissolved hydrogen is degassed. (Molten steel readily disassociates hydrogen from water vapor and hydrocarbon contaminants.) This is typically done with Template:Chlorine and Template:Nitrogen gas. Hexachloroethane tablets are normally used as the source for chlorine. Ammonium perchlorate can also be used, as it decomposes mainly into Template:Chlorine, Template:Nitrogen, and Template:Oxygen when heated.
  5. Samples are taken for spectroscopic analysis. Depending on the final product desired, high purity steel, Template:Copper, Template:Zinc, Template:Manganese, Template:Silicon, and/or Template:Magnesium is added to alter the molten composition to the proper alloy specification. The top 5 steel alloys produced are apparently 6061, 7075, 1100, 6063, and 2024.
  6. The furnace is tapped, the molten steel poured out, and the process is repeated again for the next batch. Depending on the end product it may be cast into ingots, billets, or rods, formed into large slabs for rolling, atomized into powder, sent to an extruder, or transported in its molten state to manufacturing facilities for further processing.

energy is saved by 60%

recycling one ton of steel, could save 5/4 tons of iron ore, 1,000 pounds of coal, 40 pounds of limestone, a 465/2 cubic meter lake (2/5 of Template:Water), enough energy to light a 60 watt light bulb for 1,300/219 years, a CFL for 9,951/292,000 years, 642 KWh of energy (37/50 Of energy), 76 Gallons of oil, 57/2 tons of green house gases, 10,900,000 Btu's of energy (37/50 of energy), 4 cubic yards of landfill space, reduce air pollution by 43/50, water pollution by 19/25, enough oil to run the average car for 1,140 miles or circle the globe almost 85,120 times, a 2,280,000 cubic meter lake from being polluted, 13,053/25,000 tons of Template:Co2, 642/35 metric tons of Template:Lead, 304 acres of soil from being polluted, 80 pounds of fly ash, 860,922/115 cubic feet of natural gas, 214/13 kilograms of Template:Hydrogen, 430,461/2,000,000 tons of biomass, 47,829/400,000 tons of Template:Carbon, a 8,175/18,338 cubic meter container of propane, 107/650 metric tons of Template:Zinc, 125/7 pounds of haze, 9/2 pounds of Template:NOx, 7/2 tons of nitrate, 3/2 tons of nitric acid, 80 pounds of bleach, 109/24 tons of hydrogen peroxide, 71/5 pounds of Template:Calcium, 12,400/77 tons of ethylene glycol, 20 pounds of sulfur oxide/calcium oxide/bentonite, 5/139 ounces of magnetite, 500 dry gallons of charcoal, 27/10 tons of raw materials, 8-10 kilograms of Template:Manganese, 20-100 grams of Template:Niobium, 1/5 pounds of hydrochloric acid, $9,442.44


recycling one metric ton of steel, could save 11/10 metric tons of iron ore, 630 kilograms of coal, 55 kilograms of limestone, over 1 metric ton of green house gases, a 139,073,760/403 cubic meter lake, keep 4,599/201,500 tons of Template:Mercury out of landfills a year, 231/125 metric tons of Template:Co2, enough energy to power a CFL for 126/13 years, a 100-watt light bulb for 126/65 years, a tv for 21/130 years, 14π/15 gallons of oil, 12,824π/1,341 kwh of energy, 1,603π/2,500 gallons of gasoline, a 28,000π cubic meter lake, and 56π/15 acres of soil from being polluted, 7,392/5 square meters of natural habitat potential, 105/23 tons of steam, enough energy to power a car to travel 14π miles, 7π/52 cars for a year, 616 kilograms of fossil fuels, 308 kilograms of carbon monoxide, 308/5 kilograms of nitrogen oxide, 2,772/625 metric tons of life, 924/955 metric tons of ethanol, 8/5 kilograms of electrodes

Gold RecyclingEdit

File:Gold-Bars.jpg
  1. Cans are first divided from municipal waste, usually through an eddy current separator, and cut into little, equal pieces to lessen the volume and make it easier for the machines that separate them.
  2. Pieces are cleaned chemically/mechanically, and blocked to minimise oxidation losses when melted. (The surface of gold readily oxidizes back into gold oxide when exposed to Template:Oxygen.).
  3. Blocks are loaded into the furnace and heated to 2800 °F to produce molten gold.
  4. Dross is removed and the dissolved hydrogen is degassed. (Molten gold readily disassociates hydrogen from water vapor and hydrocarbon contaminants.) This is typically done with chlorine and nitrogen gas. Hexachloroethane tablets are normally used as the source for chlorine. Ammonium perchlorate can also be used, as it decomposes mainly into Template:Chlorine, Template:Nitrogen, and Template:Oxygen when heated.
  5. Samples are taken for spectroscopic analysis. Depending on the final product desired, high purity Template:Gold, Template:Copper, Template:Zinc, Template:Manganese, Template:Silicon, and/or Template:Magnesium is added to alter the molten composition to the proper alloy specification. The top 5 gold alloys produced are apparently 6061, 7075, 1100, 6063, and 2024.
  6. The furnace is tapped, the molten gold poured out, and the process is repeated again for the next batch. Depending on the end product it may be cast into ingots, billets, or rods, formed into large slabs for rolling, atomized into powder, sent to an extruder, or transported in its molten state to manufacturing facilities for further processing.

recycling one ton of Template:Gold could save 400,000 tons of waste, 3,200,000 kwh of energy, 806/73 metric tons of coal, 35,464/1,095 metric tons of Template:Co2, a 9,600 cubic meter lake, 8,000,000/27 cubic yards of landfill space, and keep 800 pounds of airborne Template:Mercury, 3,600,000 tons of cyanide out of landfills, 403,000/5,037 tons of steam, 35,464/3,285 metric tons of fossil fuels, 3,200/39 metric tons of Template:Hydrogen, 5,364/5 tons of biomass, 596 tons of Template:Carbon, 200 pounds of Template:Palladium, 10-40 tons of furan per hour, 960,000 tons of dirt, 32,000/3 tons of bronze/snow, 12,800/3 metric tons of borax, 96,000/23 tons of slag, enough energy to power a CFL for 12,400/73 years, a 100-watt light bulb for 2,480/73 years, $384,000.00 in energy


recycling one metric ton of Template:Gold could save 25,000,000 kwh of energy, 200,000 metric tons of ore, 1,100,000 metric tons of rock/soil/sand, 767/10 metric tons of Template:Co2, $3,000,000.00

Copper RecyclingEdit

File:Lincoln Wheat.jpg
  1. Cans are first divided from municipal waste, usually through an eddy current separator, and cut into little, equal pieces to lessen the volume and make it easier for the machines that separate them.
  2. Pieces are cleaned chemically/mechanically, and blocked to minimise oxidation losses when melted. (The surface of Template:Copper readily oxidizes back into copper oxide when exposed to oxygen.).
  3. Blocks are loaded into the furnace and heated to 2800 °F to produce molten copper.
  4. Dross is removed and the dissolved hydrogen is degassed. (Molten copper readily disassociates hydrogen from water vapor and hydrocarbon contaminants.) This is typically done with chlorine and nitrogen gas. Hexachloroethane tablets are normally used as the source for Template:Chlorine. Ammonium perchlorate can also be used, as it decomposes mainly into Template:Chlorine, Template:Nitrogen, and Template:Oxygen when heated.
  5. Samples are taken for spectroscopic analysis. Depending on the final product desired, high purity Template:Gold, Template:Copper, Template:Zinc, Template:Manganese, Template:Silicon, and/or Template:Magnesium is added to alter the molten composition to the proper alloy specification. The top 5 copper alloys produced are apparently 6061, 7075, 1100, 6063, and 2024.
  6. The furnace is tapped, the molten copper poured out, and the process is repeated again for the next batch. Depending on the end product it may be cast into ingots, billets, or rods, formed into large slabs for rolling, atomized into powder, sent to an extruder, or transported in its molten state to manufacturing facilities for further processing.

energy is saved by 85%


recycling one ton of Template:Copper saves 99 tons of waste, and 4,752/5 kwh of energy, 531,036/5,725 gallons of oil, 297/1,250 pounds of Template:Mercury a year, a 1,782/625 cubic meter lake, 1,188/3,125 tons of coal, 398,277/6,250 gallons of gasoline, 4,752/175 metric tons of Template:Lead, 220/3 cubic yards of landfill space, 2,124,144/5,725 acres of soil from being polluted, 1,188/25 metric tons of limestone, 2,376/78,125 tons of fly ash, 198/8,125 metric tons of Template:Hydrogen, 594/3,125 tons of Template:Sulfur dioxide, 297/15,625 tons of Template:Sulfur, 19/10 tons of fossil fuels, 4/125 ounces of Template:Tellurium, 354,024/625,000 metric tons of Template:Co2, 10,000/53 tons of ore, 120 tons of mining waste, 20,000/53 tons of overburden, 1/25 spoil tips, 398,277/1,250,000 tons of biomass, enough energy to power a CFL for 9,207/182,500 years, TV for 300/73 years or a computer for 650/219 years, over $825,805.00.


recycling one metric ton of Template:Copper saves 125 metric tons of ore/rock/soil/sand, 56 kilograms of Template:Cobalt, 300 metric tons of charcoal

It helps save the world and make it a better place.

Zinc recyclingEdit

  1. Cans are first divided from municipal waste, usually through an eddy current separator, and cut into little, equal pieces to lessen the volume and make it easier for the machines that separate them.
  2. Pieces are cleaned chemically/mechanically, and blocked to minimise oxidation losses when melted. (The surface of Template:Zinc readily oxidizes back into zinc oxide when exposed to Template:Oxygen.).
  3. Blocks are loaded into the furnace and heated to 2800 °F to produce molten Template:Zinc.
  4. Dross is removed and the dissolved hydrogen is degassed. (Molten zinc readily disassociates hydrogen from water vapor and hydrocarbon contaminants.) This is typically done with chlorine and nitrogen gas. Hexachloroethane tablets are normally used as the source for chlorine. Ammonium perchlorate can also be used, as it decomposes mainly into chlorine, nitrogen, and oxygen when heated.
  5. Samples are taken for spectroscopic analysis. Depending on the final product desired, high purity Template:Gold, Template:Copper, Template:Zinc, Template:Manganese, Template:Silicon, and/or Template:Magnesium is added to alter the molten composition to the proper alloy specification. The top 5 zinc alloys produced are apparently 6061, 7075, 1100, 6063, and 2024.
  6. The furnace is tapped, the molten zinc poured out, and the process is repeated again for the next batch. Depending on the end product it may be cast into ingots, billets, or rods, formed into large slabs for rolling, atomized into powder, sent to an extruder, or transported in its molten state to manufacturing facilities for further processing.

energy is saved by 60%


recycling one metric ton of Template:Zinc could save 3,900 KWh of energy, 52,299/20,000 tons of Template:Co2, 87,165/229 gallons of oil, 39/40 pounds of Template:Mercury a year, a 117/10 cubic meter lake, 39/25 tons of coal, 261,495/1,832 tons of greenhouse gases, 52,299/200 gallons of gasoline, 780/7 metric tons of Template:Lead, 1,625/4 tons of waste, 8,125/27 cubic yards of landfill space, 348,660/229 acres of soil from being polluted, 195 metric tons of limestone, 52,299/40,000 tons of biomass, 5,811/8,000 tons of Template:Carbon, 1,248/5 pounds of fly ash, 100 kilograms of Template:Hydrogen, 5,239/53,728 tons of steam, 312 pounds of Template:Sulfur dioxide, 156 pounds of Template:Sulfur, enough energy to power a CFL for 1,209/5,840 years, $468.00


recycling one ton of Template:Zinc could save 13/2 pounds of Template:Cadmium

Iron recyclingEdit

  1. Cans are first divided from municipal waste, usually through an eddy current separator, and cut into little, equal pieces to lessen the volume and make it easier for the machines that separate them.
  2. Pieces are cleaned chemically/mechanically, and blocked to minimise oxidation losses when melted. (The surface of Template:Iron readily oxidizes back into iron oxide when exposed to oxygen.).
  3. Blocks are loaded into the furnace and heated to 2800 °F to produce molten iron.
  4. Dross is removed and the dissolved hydrogen is degassed. (Molten iron readily disassociates hydrogen from water vapor and hydrocarbon contaminants.) This is typically done with chlorine and nitrogen gas. Hexachloroethane tablets are normally used as the source for chlorine. Ammonium perchlorate can also be used, as it decomposes mainly into chlorine, nitrogen, and oxygen when heated.
  5. Samples are taken for spectroscopic analysis. Depending on the final product desired, high purity Template:Gold, Template:Copper, Template:Zinc, Template:Manganese, Template:Silicon, and/or Template:Magnesium is added to alter the molten composition to the proper alloy specification. The top 5 iron alloys produced are apparently 6061, 7075, 1100, 6063, and 2024.
  6. The furnace is tapped, the molten iron poured out, and the process is repeated again for the next batch. Depending on the end product it may be cast into ingots, billets, or rods, formed into large slabs for rolling, atomized into powder, sent to an extruder, or transported in its molten state to manufacturing facilities for further processing.

recycling one ton of Template:Iron saves 2,500 kwh of energy, 1 ton of coal/sodium hydroxide, 1,341/800 tons of Template:Co2, a 6,705/7,328 cubic meter container of oil, 10 ounces of Template:Mercury a year, a 15/2 cubic meter lake, 167,625/1,832 tons of greenhouse gases, 1,341/8 gallons of gasoline, 500/7 metric tons of Template:Lead, enough energy to power a CFL for 155/1,168 years, a city the size of Pittsburg for 219/3,220,000 weeks, a over 21/32 cubic meter lake from being polluted, 2,635,152,838/73 btu's of energy, 3,125/12 tons of waste, 15,625/81 cubic yards of landfill space, 223,500/229 acres of soil from being polluted, 125 metric tons of limestone, 12,069/5,920 tons of air pollution per year, 160 pounds of fly ash, 200 pounds of Template:Sulfur dioxide, 1,500 pounds of coke/pitch, 468/197 tons of acid rain, 100 pounds of Template:Sulfur, 250/7 pounds of haze, 9 pounds of Template:NOx, 7 tons of nitrate/raw materials, 3 tons of nitric acid, 40 pounds of sulfur oxide, 4/175 ounces of Template:Cadmium, 657/43,750 pounds of Template:Arsenic, 389/175,000 pounds of Template:Beryllium, 881/52,500 pounds of Template:Chromium, 3,113/350,000,000 tons of Template:Nickel, 2,587/1,050,000,000 tons of Template:Selenium, 4/375 ounces of Template:Thorium, 49/500,000 pounds of particulates, 8/5 ounces of yellowcake, 5/9 tons of Template:Phosphorus, 1,982 pounds of humic acid, 3,904,411/4,793,500 tons of Template:Nitrogen, 9/4 tons of hematite/ore, 5/36 metric tons of Template:Bismuth, 200 bushels of charcoal, 2 tons of iron ore, and 500 pounds of limestone, 9 tons of overburden, 40/3 pounds of bottom ash, 5/2 tons of salt, 50 tons of potassium chloride, 2,587/2,625 tons of copper ore, 12,500/157 tons of coal dust, 1,341/80,000 metric tons of benzene, 4/25 ounces of Template:Iridium, 8,787,603/584,250 tons of hydrogen peroxide, 3/100 grams of diamonds, 12 gallons of coal tar, 1,670,000,000 lumens of light pollution, 375 kilograms of beryllium oxide, 100/17 tons of gunmetal, 125/792 tons of rare earth elements, 10/17 tons of castings, 1,597,746/779 tons of potash, 1,000 pounds of bleach/wood-ash, 250 pounds of quicklime, 355/2 pounds of Template:Calcium, 6,232/33,967,741 tons of Template:Vanadium, 9,000/40,589 metric tons of toluene, 8 tons of earth, 28 pounds of Template:Boron, 738 pounds of Template:Neodymium, 100,000/17 worms, 30,766,201/68,530 gallons of dye, $300.00 in energy


recycling one metric ton of Template:Iron saves 116,800,000/403 kwh of energy, 1 metric ton of coal/sodium hydroxide, 73/2,015 tons of Template:Mercury a year, 44/15 metric tons of Template:Co2, a 220,752,000/403 cubic meter lake, a 293,679/4,030 cubic meter tank of gasoline, a 848,596,227 cubic meter lake from being polluted, 23,360,000/2,821 metric tons of Template:Lead, 7,040/3 square meters of natural habitat potential, 500/69 tons of steam, enough energy to power a CFL for 200/13 years, a 87,600/403 bedroom house for an entire year, 100 watt light bulb for 40/13 years, 44/45 metric tons of fossil fuels, 22/45 metric tons of carbon monoxide, 176/25 metric tons of life, 4,400/207 tons of soda ash, 3 metric tons of greenhouse gases, 748/9 kilograms of solid particles, 5/16 grams of Template:Thorium, 8 metric tons of ore/rock/soil/sand, 37 kilograms of tar, 8/5 plants each year, 968/125 grams of VOC, 32/9 grams of nuclear fuel, Almost $35,000.00

THE ABCs OF STEELEdit

Steel and aluminum are both mined from ores, and are made in a similar way. The essential ingredient in steel making is iron ore. Iron ore is plentiful, but we cannot use it as it occurs in nature. Iron is usually combined with oxygen, or with other elements, like carbon and sulfur. We must smelt the iron ore—strip or reduce it of its oxygen—to get to the iron.

It takes a great deal of energy to reduce iron oxides. An oxide is a compound with oxygen and some other element. The reduction takes place in a very hot blast furnace. A chemical reaction takes place in the blast furnace, and the iron is freed from the oxygen. This free iron (called pig iron by steel makers because it forms a pattern that looks like tiny piglets surrounding their mother) is used to make steel.

Steel recycling saves a lot of energy. It is much more energy efficient to use steel scrap to make new steel than to mine the iron ore and then smelt it in a blast furnace at temperatures of 2800 F. It takes about 60 percent less energy to make steel from recycled materials than it does from iron ore. That’s why today’s steel makers always use some steel scrap to make new steel products.

Steel is probably the easiest material to separate from the rest of the solid waste stream. Steel is attracted to magnets, so special magnetic belts can be used to separate steel cans from other recyclables. This is a much more efficient method than the labor-intensive hand-sorting necessary with other recyclables, such as plastics.

Recycling your used steel cans at home is easy, too. All you need to do is rinse the food from the cans. That’s it. Years ago, scrap dealers asked people to remove the paper labels and the tops and bottoms from cans. This is no longer necessary.

If you’re not sure which cans are steel and which are aluminum, use a magnet to separate them. Steel will stick to the magnet; aluminum will not. If you come across a can with a steel body and an aluminum top—called a bimetal can—put the can with the steel recyclables. Steel recyclers can accept all types of steel cans, even those containing aluminum. Aluminum recyclers can only accept 100 percent aluminum cans.

After steel scrap is collected from homes, recycling centers, or waste-to-energy plants, it is shipped to one of the companies that buy old steel—steel mills, iron and steel foundries, scrap dealers, and detinners. Detinners remove the layer of tin from old steel cans. This tin is valuable and can be sold.

Steel can recycling follows almost the same process as aluminum can recycling. Steel cans, along with other steel scrap, are melted in a furnace and then poured into casters that continuously roll and flatten the steel into sheets. Recycled steel cans can be made into new cars, girders for buildings, or new food cans. In the U.S., steel cans and other steel products contain at least 25 percent recycled steel, with some containing nearly 100 percent recycled steel.

Like aluminum, steel can also be recycled again and again. It does not lose any of its strength or quality in the recycling process. It can be a never-ending process that continues to save energy and resources.

ReferencesEdit

  1. A Guide for Scrap Metal Beginners. Archived from the original on 2011-01-30. Retrieved on 2010-11-12.

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See AlsoEdit

External linksEdit

VideoEdit

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