Benefits of Planting a TreeEdit
Well-placed landscaping cuts energy costs in summer and winter. While it is alive, the tree will store carbon dioxide (CO2) that would otherwise be in the atmosphere. Trees that are placed so that they will provide shade for your house will also help it stay cool in the summer. Better yet, make it a fruit or a nut tree. Planting perennials that yield food, including berry bushes and garden vegetables and herbs, will help you eat locally while 'fixing' more carbon in the soil. Introducing these plants in public places, by the sides of roads and in parks, is another way to benefit the community and the climate. When planting outside your home, limit yourself to native species.
over one tree could provide new wild life habitat and shade in almost 25/24 places, And absorb almost 25/24 tons of co2 over the course of their lives, a 3,125/5,496 cubic meter container of oil, and enough energy to power over 17/96 cars for a year, one car to travel 1,562,500/687 miles, 6,250,000/4,023 kwh of energy, a 6,250/1,341 cubic meter lake, 78,125/1,374 tons of greenhouse gases, 625/6 gallons of gasoline, 1,250,000/28,161 metric tons of toxic lead, 2,500/4,023 tons of coal, 14,800,000/8,931 acres of soil from being polluted, 1,953,125/12,069 tons of waste, 39,062,500/325,863 cubic yards of landfill space, 312,500/4,023 metric tons of limestone, 200/4,023 tons of fly ash, over $185.00.
1 square kilometer forest has 250,000 trees
1 acre forest has 2,025/2 trees
1 football field worth of trees could save 37/13 tons of co2, a 4,625/2,977 cubic meter container of oil, 37/69,732 tons of mercury a year, 5,735/391,572 metric tons of coal, enough energy to power over 629/1,300 cars for a year, one car to travel 18,500,000/2,977 miles, almost $370.00
sometimes one tree can absorb over 1 ton of co2 during its life time, and save 2,000,000/1,341 kwh of energy, a 125/229 cubic meter container of oil, 2,015/391,572 metric tons or 800/1,341 tons of coal, 500/1,341 pounds of mercury a year, 12,500/229 tons of greenhouse gases, 400,000/9,387 metric tons of toxic lead, 625,000/4,023 tons of waste, 400,000/687 acres of soil from being polluted, 1,543,209,877/13,410,000 cubic yards of landfill space, 100,000/1,341 metric tons of limestone, 64/1,341 tons of fly ash, 5/18 tons of carbon, 80/1,341 tons of sulfur dioxide, a 27/68 cubic meter container of biodiesel, 40/219 pounds of CFC, 1/11 pounds of sulfur hexafluoride, 31/250 pounds of VOCs, 100/9,387 tons of haze, 10 kilograms of benzene, 200/447 tons of coke/pitch, 800/149 pounds of NOx, 40/1,341 tons of sulfur, over 5/916 tons of smog, 800/447 tons of nitric acid, 16/6,705 metric tons of nitric oxide, 800 pounds of water vapor, 5/3 tons of chlorine, 10/9 tons of 1,3-butadiene, 5/9 tons of butane, 2,250/1,603 tons of hydrocarbons, 500/14,427 tons of PETN, 15/2 pounds of nitrogen dioxide, 1250,000/8,931 metric tons of global warming, 16/1,341 tons of sulfur oxides, 53/149 tons of chlorine dioxide, 325/229 tons of soot, 400,000/23 cubic feet of natural gas, 374,400/264,177 tons of acid rain, 20,000/52,299 metric tons of zinc, 24,500,000,000/12,069 metric tons of sulfuric acid, 320,000/103,257 tons of ethylene glycol, 100 gallons of gasoline, 100,000/77,927 metric tons of trinitrotoluene, 1,892/17 pounds of glycerol, 100/1,341 pounds of uranium, 8/9,387 pounds of cadmium, 1,168/130,375 pounds of arsenic, 1,559/1,173,375 pounds of beryllium, 881/176,006,250 tons of chromium, enough energy to power a CFL for 7,750/97,893 years, Over 17/100 cars for a year, One car to travel 500,000/229 miles, 500/447 bedroom house for an entire year, Tv for 775/587,358 years, A city the size of Pittsburg for 73/1,799,175 weeks, almost $130.00
- The course= 25/24 tons
- Whole century= 37/15 tons
- Whole millennium= 74/3 tons, over $3,205.00
- Whole decade= 1,480/3 pounds
- Whole year= 148/3 pounds
- Whole month= 37/9 pounds
- Whole day= 148/1,095 pounds
- Whole week= 1,036/1,095 pounds
- Whole hour= 37/6,570 pounds
- Whole minute= 37/394,200 pounds
- Whole second= 37/23,652,000 pounds
One tree filters about 60 pounds of air pollution per year, save 148,000/4,023 kwh of energy, 148/3 pounds of co2, 296/20,115 tons of coal, a 148/1,341 cubic meter lake, 7,400/2,061 gallons of oil, 29,600/2,061 acres of soil from being polluted, 37/4,023 pounds of mercury a year, 925/687 tons of greenhouse gases, 37/15 gallons of gasoline, 7,400/4,023 metric tons of limestone, 74/3 pounds of biomass, 370/27 pounds of carbon, 592/502,875 tons of fly ash, 148/156,897 metric tons of hydrogen, 4,462/4,851,039 tons of steam, 29,600/69 cubic feet of natural gas, enough energy to power a CFL for 1,147/587,358 years, almost $5.00,
sometimes one tree absorbs 48 pounds and/or 817/250 metric tons of co2 a year
(48 pounds of co2 could save 16,000/447 kwh of energy, a 3/229 cubic meter container of oil, 32/2,235 tons of coal, 4/447 pounds of mercury a year, 300/229 tons of greenhouse gases, 3,200/3,129 metric tons of toxic lead, 5,000/1,341 tons of waste, 3,200/229 acres of soil from being polluted, 800/447 metric tons of limestone, 1,024/447 pounds of fly ash, 40/3 pounds of carbon, 1,280/447 pounds of sulfur dioxide, 216/85 gallons of biodiesel, 8/1,825 pounds of CFC, 3/1,375 pounds of sulfur hexafluoride, 93/31,250 pounds of VOCs, 1,600/3,129 pounds of haze, 6/25 kilograms of benzene, 8/745 tons of coke/pitch, 96/745 pounds of NOx, 640/447 pounds of sulfur, over 60/229 pounds of smog, 32/745 tons of nitric acid, 128/2,235 kilograms of nitric oxide, 96/5 pounds of water vapor, 80 pounds of chlorine, 160/3 pounds of 1,3-butadiene, 80/3 pounds of butane, 54/1,603 tons of hydrocarbons, 4/4,809 tons of PETN, 9/50 pounds of nitrogen dioxide, 10,000/2,977 metric tons of global warming, 256/447 pounds of sulfur oxides, 159/18,625 tons of chlorine dioxide, 39/1,145 tons of soot, 9,600/23 cubic feet of natural gas, 4,992/146,765 tons of acid rain, 160/17,433 metric tons of zinc, 2,560/34,419 tons of ethylene glycol, 12/5 gallons of gasoline, 1,419/1,062,500 tons of glycerol, 16/14,433 metric tons of hydrogen, 224/2,235 tons of nitrate, 100,000/36,207 cubic yards of landfill space, 196,000,000/4,023 metric tons of sulfuric acid, 4/2,235 pounds of uranium, enough energy to power a CFL for 62/32,631 years, Over 51/12,500 cars for a year, One car to travel 12,000/229 miles, 4/149 bedroom house for an entire year, Tv for 31/18,774 weeks, A city the size of Pittsburg for 1/53,546,875 years, almost $5.00)
(817/250 metric tons of co2 could save 2,451/2,200 metric tons of coal, 13,072/5 square meters of natural habitat potential, 817/750 metric tons of fossil fuels, 817/1,500 metric tons of carbon monoxide, 817/7,500 metric tons of nitrogen oxide, 13,889/150,000 metric tons of solid particles, 4,085/506 tons of steam, 4,902/625 metric tons of life, 1,634/955 metric tons of ethanol, 1,634/69 tons of soda ash, 98,040/407 square meters of biomass, 2,451/2,750 metric tons of carbon, 25,327/125 square meters of methane, 7,353/20 gallons of gasoline, 7,353/2,200 metric tons of greenhouse gases, 5,719/2,500 metric tons of shells, a 2,451/1,700 cubic meter tank of aviation fuel, enough energy to power a CFL for 2,451/143 years, 100 watt light bulb for 2,451/715 years, a 1,073,538/4,433 bedroom house for an entire year, a tv for 817/2,860 years, a washing machine for 817/5,720 years, a computer for 2,451/5,720 years, over $38,987.24)
- Over the one year lifetime= 733/25 pounds
- over the one month lifetime= 733/300 pounds
- over the one day lifetime= 733/9,125 pounds
- over the one week lifetime= 5,131/18,250,000 tons
one tree can save 33,300,000/17 btu's of energy, 2,701/204 gallons of oil, 2,701/544 tons of greenhouse gases, 2,701/51 acres of soil from being polluted. 26/2,025 tons of dust each year, 3,330,000/155,873 gallons of propane, 3 pounds of particulates each year, 555/5,491 tons of ammonia, 4 pounds of ozone each year, 333/3,230 tons of methanol, 111/136 tons of hydrogen peroxide, 33,300/2,363 gallons of diesel fuel, a 999/18,224 cubic meter container of kerosene, 185/17 pounds of herbicides, 16,650/376,703 tons of nitrogen, 222/85 pounds of silver, 333/2,380 tons of phosphate, 2,775/17 tons of carrying capacity per hour, 111/11,900 tons of pesticides, almost $10.00
a tree with a width of one foot can absorb (3-4)/50 decibels of sound intensity
a tree with a width of one inch can absorb (3-4)/600 decibels of sound intensity
one tree can save 1,500 pounds of water in a day
Social and Economic Benefits of Planting TreesEdit
Just being around trees makes you feel good. Can you imagine your community without trees? Trees, especially in urban areas, have numerous social benefits. For example, the addition of trees to a neighborhood or a business district can greatly improve the mental and physical health of residents and workers. In fact, the University of Cambridge did a study on job satisfaction of employees of business with a view of trees from their office. They found that these employees suffered from fewer diseases than workers without a view of trees. See here for more information on the study.
Another example is with children with learning disorders. As a form of therapy, children that suffer from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) can benefit from the presence of trees and other greenery. Kids with ADHD have been proven to be calmer, more responsive, and better able to concentrate when in a space with lots of trees.
Additionally, have you considered that planting a tree can significantly increase your property values? As an example, the U.S. Tax Court recently calculated a value of 9 percent ($15,000) for the removal of a large black oak on a piece of property valued at $164,500.
Houses with trees are also more attractive to visitors, potential buyers, and neighbors. Neighborhoods with lots of trees also report less crime! There is no doubt that if you plant trees in your community, people will see and feel the difference.
As you can see, it's clear that trees are essential to our life on the planet. The great thing is that we as humans can play an active role in planting trees to help offset deforestation and urbanization. Not only can you plant trees in your yard, you can also get involved in local tree planting activities on Arbor Day.
How to Plant a TreeEdit
Choosing a TreeEdit
Choosing a tree should be a well thought-out decision. Tree planting can be a significant investment in money and time. Proper selection can provide you with years of enjoyment as well as significantly increase the value of your property. An inappropriate tree for your property can be a constant maintenance problem or even a hazard. Before you buy, take advantage of the abundant references on gardening at local libraries, universities, arboretums, parks where trees are identified, native plant and gardening clubs, and nurseries. Some questions to consider in selecting a tree include:
- What purpose will this tree serve? Trees can serve numerous landscape functions including beautification, screening of sights and sounds, shade and energy conservation, and wildlife habitat.
- Is the species appropriate for your area? Reliable nurseries will not sell plant material that is not suitable for your area. However, some mass marketers have trees and shrubs that are not winter hardy in the area sold. Even if a tree is hardy, it may not flower consistently from year to year at the limits of its useful range due to late spring freezes. If you are buying a tree for the spring flowers and fall fruits, this may be a consideration. In warmer climates, there may not be a long enough period of cool temperatures for some species, such as apples, to develop flowers. Apples and other species undergo vernalization -- a period of near-freezing temperatures that cause changes in the plant, resulting in the production of flowers.
- Be aware of microclimates. Microclimates are very localized areas where weather conditions may vary from the norm. A very sheltered yard may support vegetation not normally adapted to the region. On the other hand, a north-facing slope may be significantly cooler or windier than surrounding areas and survival of normally adapted plants may be limited.
- Select trees native to your area. They will be more tolerant of local weather and soil conditions, enhance natural biodiversity in your neighborhood, and be more beneficial to wildlife than many non-native trees. Avoid exotic trees that can invade other areas, crowd out native plants, and harm natural ecosystems.
- How big will it get? When planting a small tree, it is often difficult to imagine that in 20 years it could be shading your entire yard. Unfortunately, many trees are planted and later removed when the tree grows beyond the dimensions of the property.
- What is the average life expectancy of the tree? Some trees can live for hundreds of years. Others are considered "short-lived" and may live for only 20 or 30 years. Many short-lived trees tend to be smaller ornamental species. Short-lived species should not necessarily be ruled out when considering plantings. They may have other desirable characteristics, such as size, shape, tolerance of shade, or fruit, that would be useful in the landscape. These species may also fill a void in a young landscape, and can be removed as other larger, longer-lived species mature.
- Does it have any particular ornamental value such as leaf color or flowers and fruits? Some species provide beautiful displays of color for short periods in the spring or fall. Other species may have foliage that is reddish or variegated and can add color in your landscaping year round.
- Trees bearing fruits or nuts can provide an excellent source of food for many species of wildlife. However, some people consider some fruit and nut bearing trees to be "dirty."
- Does it have any particular insect, disease, or other problem that may reduce its usefulness? Certain insects and diseases can be serious problems on some desirable species in some regions. Depending on the pest, control of the problem may be difficult and the pest may significantly reduce the attractiveness, if not the life expectancy, of the plant. Other species such as the silver maple (Acer saccharium) are known to have weak wood that is susceptible to damage in ice storms or heavy winds.
- How common is this species in your neighborhood or town? Some species are over-planted. Increasing the natural diversity will provide habitat for wildlife and help limit the opportunity for a single pest to destroy all plantings. An excellent example of this was the American elm (Ulmus americana). This lovely tree was widely planted throughout the United States. With the introduction of Dutch elm disease, thousands of communities lost all their street trees in only a few years.
- Is the tree evergreen or deciduous? Evergreen trees will provide cover and shade year round. They may also be more effective as a barrier for wind and noise. Deciduous trees will give you summer shade but allow the winter sun to shine in. This may be a consideration for where to place the tree in your yard.
Placement of TreesEdit
Proper placement of trees is critical for your enjoyment and their long-term survival. Check with local authorities about regulations pertaining to placement of trees. Some communities have ordinances restricting placement of trees within a specified distance of a street, sidewalk, streetlight, or other utilities.
Before planting your tree, consider the tree's ultimate size. When the tree nears maturity, will it be too near your house or other structures? Be considerate of your neighbors. An evergreen tree planted on your north side may block the winter sun from your next door neighbor. Will it provide too much shade for your vegetable and flower gardens? Most vegetables and many flowers require considerable amounts of sun. If you intend to grow these plants, consider how the placement of trees will affect these gardens. Will it obstruct driveways or sidewalks? Will it cause problems for buried or overhead utilities?
Planting a TreeEdit
A properly planted and maintained tree will grow faster and live longer than one that is incorrectly planted. Trees can be planted almost any time of the year as long as the ground is not frozen. Late summer or early fall is the optimum time to plant trees in many areas. This gives the tree a chance to establish new roots before winter arrives and the ground freezes. When spring arrives, the tree is ready to grow. The second choice for planting is late winter or early spring. Planting in hot summer weather should be avoided. Planting in frozen soil during the winter is difficult and tough on tree roots. When the tree is dormant and the ground is frozen, there is no opportunity for the growth of new roots.
Trees are purchased as container grown, balled and burlapped (B&B), and bare root. Generally, container grown are the easiest to plant and successfully establish in any season, including summer. With container grown stock, the plant has been growing in a container for a period of time. When planting container grown plants, little damage is done to the roots as the plant is transferred to the soil. Container grown trees range in size from very small plants in gallon pots up to large trees in huge pots. B&B plants frequently have been dug from a nursery, wrapped in burlap, and kept in the nursery for an additional period of time, giving the roots opportunity to regenerate. B&B plants can be quite large. Bare root trees are usually extremely small plants. Because there is no soil on the roots, they must be planted when they are dormant to avoid drying out. The roots must be kept moist until planted. Frequently, bare root trees are offered by seed and nursery mail order catalogs or in the wholesale trade. Many state operated nurseries and local conservation districts also sell bare root stock in bulk quantities for only a few cents per plant. Bare root plants usually are offered in the early spring and should be planted as soon as possible upon arrival.
Carefully follow the planting instructions that come with your tree. If specific instructions are not available, follow these tips:
- Before digging, call your local utilities to identify the location of any underground utilities.
- Dig a hole twice as wide as, and slightly shallower than, the root ball. Roughen the sides and bottom of the hole with a pick or shovel so that roots can penetrate the soil.
- With a potted tree, gently remove the tree from the container. Lay the tree on its side with the container end near the planting hole. Hit the bottom and sides of the container until the root ball is loosened. If roots are growing in a circular pattern around the root ball, slice through the roots on a couple of sides of the root ball. With trees wrapped in burlap, remove the string or wire that holds the burlap to the root crown. It is unnecessary to completely remove the burlap. Plastic wraps must be completely removed. Gently separate circling roots on the root ball. Shorten exceptionally long roots, and guide the shortened roots downward and outward. Root tips die quickly when exposed to light and air, so don't waste time.
- Place the root ball in the hole. Leave the top of the root ball (where the roots end and the trunk begins) 1/2 to 1 inch above the surrounding soil, making sure not to cover it unless roots are exposed. For bare root plants, make a mound of soil in the middle of the hole and spread plant roots out evenly over mound. Do not set trees too deep. As you add soil to fill in around the tree, lightly tamp the soil to collapse air pockets, or add water to help settle the soil. Form a temporary water basin around the base of the tree to encourage water penetration, and water thoroughly after planting. A tree with a dry root ball cannot absorb water; if the root ball is extremely dry, allow water to trickle into the soil by placing the hose at the trunk of the tree.
- Mulch around the tree. A 3-foot diameter circle of mulch is common.
- Depending on the size of the tree and the site conditions, staking may be beneficial. Staking supports the tree until the roots are well established to properly anchor it. Staking should allow for some movement of the tree. After trees are established, remove all support wires. If these are not removed they can girdle the tree, cutting into the trunk and eventually killing the tree.
For the first year or two, especially after a week or so of especially hot or dry weather, watch your trees closely for signs of moisture stress. If you see leaf wilting or hard, caked soil, water the trees well and slowly enough to allow the water to soak in. This will encourage deep root growth. Keep the area under the trees mulched.
Some species of evergreen trees may need protection against winter sun and wind. A thorough watering in the fall before the ground freezes is recommended. Spray solutions are available to help prevent drying of foliage during the winter.
Fertilization is usually not needed for newly planted trees. Depending on soil and growing conditions, fertilizer may be beneficial at a later time.
Young trees need protection against rodents, frost cracks, sunscald, and lawn mowers and weed whackers. Mice and rabbits frequently girdle small trees by chewing away the bark at snow level. Since the tissues that transport nutrients in the tree are located just under the bark, a girdled tree often dies in the spring when growth resumes. Weed whackers are also a common cause of girdling. Plastic guards are an inexpensive and easy control method. Frost cracking is caused by the sunny side of the tree expanding at a different rate than the colder shaded side. This can cause large splits in the trunk. Sunscald can occur when a young tree is suddenly moved from a shady spot into direct sun. Light colored tree wraps can be used to protect the trunk from sunscald.
Usually, pruning is not needed on newly planted trees. As the tree grows, lower branches may be pruned to provide clearance above the ground, or to remove dead or damaged limbs or suckers that sprout from the trunk. Sometimes larger trees need pruning to allow more light to enter the canopy. Small branches can be removed easily with pruners. Large branches should be removed with a pruning saw. All cuts should be vertical. This will allow the tree to heal quickly without the use of sealants. Major pruning should be done in late winter or early spring. At this time the tree is more likely to "bleed" as sap is rising through the plant. This is actually healthy and will help prevent invasion by many disease organisms. Heavy pruning in the late summer or fall may reduce the tree's winter hardiness. Removal of large branches can be hazardous. If in doubt about your ability to prune properly, contact a professional with the proper equipment.
Under no circumstance should trees be topped. Not only does this practice ruin the natural shape of the tree, but it increases susceptibility to diseases and results in very narrow crotch angles, the angle between the trunk and the side branch. Narrow crotch angles are weaker than wide ones and more susceptible to damage from wind and ice. If a large tree requires major reduction in height or size, contact a professionally trained arborist. There are other methods to selectively remove large branches without sacrificing the health or beauty of the tree.
On the FarmEdit
Windbreaks and tree plantings slow the wind and provide shelter and food for wildlife. Trees can shelter livestock and crops; they are used as barriers to slow winds that blow across large cropped fields and through farmsteads. Windbreaks can be beneficial in reducing blowing and drifting snow along roadways. Farmstead and field windbreaks and tree plantings are key components of a conservation system. They also help prevent dust particles from adding to smog over urban areas.
The content in the section How to Plant a Tree originally appeared in the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service article about Tree Planting. The original article can be found at http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/feature/backyard/TreePtg.html.
One tree can makeEdit
- 1/250,000 square kilometers
- 32,000/13 paper cups
- 200,000/31 sheets of a4 paper
- 90 pounds of junk mail
- 1/17 tons of paper
- 5/3 cartons of paper
- 50/3 reams of paper
- 25,000/3 tickets/sheets of paper
- 1/75,000 runs of Sunday new York times
- 54 kilograms of newspaper
- 19,000/53 catalogues
- 5,000/7 paper bags
- 100 pounds of newspaper/toilet paper
- 125/12 rolls of toilet paper
- 7/1,250,000 pieces of junk mail
- 500/(17-31) phone books
- 2/2,025 acres
- 15,000,000 tons of receipts
- 53,001 paper plates
- 37/340 tons of wood
- 35/34 notebooks
- 7/100,000 pieces of furniture
- 28,750 napkins
- 61,370 envelopes
- 3-foot (1 yard)-high stack of newspapers
- 1,000 paper straws/wooden utensils
- 1,800 pairs of chopsticks
- 2,211,840 toothpicks
- Junk mail for 50/17 years
- 175 pencils
- 262,500 coupons
- 5,000/17 cards
- 3,268/145 t-shirts
- 50,000 receipts
- 20 newspapers
- 50 books
- 60 rolls of paper towels
- 160/17 american diapers
- 400,000/151 canadian diapers
- 450 pounds of cork
- Carpool: 4,000
- Turning off lights before leaving a room: 3/2
- One megawatt wind turbine: 900,000
- One megawatt solar power: 741,100
- One kilowatt solar power: 7/10,000
- one megawatt commercial system: 200,000
- 120 watt light bulb to 32 watt CFL: 43/100
- 100 watt light bulb to 23 watt CFL: 19/50
- 75 watt light bulb to 19 watt CFL: 27/100
- 60 watt light bulb to 14 watt CFL: 11/50
- 40 watt light bulb to 9 watt CFL: 3/20
- 15 watt light bulb to 3 watt CFL: 1/20
- 250W high pressure sodium light to 120W LED street light, or eliminating one office trip per week: 30
- 400W mercury light to 120W LED street light: 65
- Recycling one ton of aluminum: 891/8
- Recycling one ton of plastic: 125/2
- Recycling one ton of glass: 64/7
- One Push Mower: 6
- One energy star appliance: 17/10
- One geothermal heat pump: 380
- One photovoltaic system: 38,475
- Activating sleep mode on one computer: 29,727/640
- One residential system: 600
- Programming your programmable thermostat: 70
- Recycling half of your household waste: 50
- Turning off a power strip: 3/74
- Wrapping your water heater with a blanket: 125/6
- Setting the water thermostat no higher than 120 degrees Fahrenheit: 275/24
- Keeping your tires properly inflated: (75-175)/12
- One low flow shower head, or cleaning a dirty air filter: 175/24
- Air dry your clothes for one month: 175/72
- Carpooling 2 days a week: 265/8
- One energy-efficient refrigerator or Doing one load of laundry in cold water: 125/12
- Replacing your current washing machine with a low-energy, low-water-use machine: 55/6
- Caulking, and weather-stripping doorways and windows: 425/12
- Moving your thermostat down two degrees in winter and up two degrees in the summer: 125/3
- One hybrid car: 3,125/24
- One CFL: 25/4
- One mile a week: 25/24
- One annual vegetarian: 15/2