A rechargeable battery or storage battery is a group of one or more electrochemical cells. They are known as secondary cells because their electrochemical reactions are electrically reversible. Rechargeable batteries come in many different shapes and sizes, ranging anything from a button cell to megawatt systems connected to stabilize an electrical distribution network. Several different combinations of chemicals are commonly used, including: lead-acid, nickel cadmium (NiCd), nickel metal hydride (NiMH), lithium ion (Li-ion), and lithium ion polymer (Li-ion polymer).
Rechargeable batteries have lower total cost of use and environmental impact than disposable batteries. Some rechargeable battery types are available in the same sizes as disposable types.
Rechargeable batteries have higher initial cost, but can be recharged very cheaply and used many times.
One rechargeable battery could save 1,000 batteries from going into landfills
1,000 batteries, or a (26,710-749)/26 ton battery could keep (2,671-7,871)/4 tons of Pb, almost 25 gram’s of Hg, a 45/8 cubic meter container or 5 tons of sulfuric acid out of landfills, save, a 270 cubic meter lake, 111/10 cubic yards of landfill space, almost 3/2 tons of black gold, 8,661 kWhenergy, a 1,233/320 cubic meter container of oil, 147,000,000 Btu's of energy, a 9/10 cubic meter container of petroleum, enough energy to heat over 63/40 homes, a CFL for 268,491/584,000 years, a (45 – 90)/8 cubic meter tank of gasoline, enough oil to run the average car for 30,825/2 miles or circle the globe almost 1,150,800 times, a 30,825,000 cubic meter lake from being polluted, 6,165/16 tons of green house gases, 3,490,383/116,800,000 metric tons or 8,661/2,500 tons of coal, 2,997/200 tons of solid waste, 4,110 acres of soil from being polluted, 8,661/20 metric tons of limestone, 104,529,609/14,800,000 tons of air pollution per year, 8,661/31,250 tons of fly ash, 2,887/13,000 metric tons of H, 125 pounds of coltan, (26,710-749)/26 tons of heavy metal, (3-7)/2 tons of Co, 282,357/40,000 tons of CO2, (34,723-102,323)/80,000 tons of Te, 10 tons of alkali, 20 tons of gypsum, 502,400 tons of calcium fluoride, 1 ton of Nd, 11-33/2 tons of La, 2 tons of phosphoric acid, $12,721.32
The technology behind Li-ion battery has not yet fully reached maturity. However, the batteries are the type of choice in many consumer electronics and have one of the best energy-to-mass ratios and a very slow loss of charge when not in use.
A new battery chemistry developed by Sion Power since 1994. Claims superior energy to weight than current lithium technologies on the market. Also lower material cost may help this product reach the mass market.
An emerging refinement of the lithium ion technology by Excellatron. The developers claim a very large increase in recharge cycles, around 40,000 cycles. Higher charge and discharge rates. At least 5C charge rate. Sustained 60C discharge, and 1000C peak discharge rate. And also a significant increase in specific energy, and energy density.
Also Infinite Power Solutions makes thin film batteries (TFB) for micro-electronic applications, that are flexible, rechargeable, solid-state Li batteries.
This type of rechargeable battery can deliver the best known cycleability, in order of a million cycles, due to the extraordinary electrochemical stability of K insertion/extraction materials such as Prussian blue.