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A rechargeable battery or storage battery is a group of one or more electrochemical cells. They are known as secondary cells because their electrochemical reactions are electrically reversible. Rechargeable batteries come in many different shapes and sizes, ranging anything from a button cell to megawatt systems connected to stabilize an electrical distribution network. Several different combinations of chemicals are commonly used, including: lead-acid, nickel cadmium (NiCd), nickel metal hydride (NiMH), lithium ion (Li-ion), and lithium ion polymer (Li-ion polymer).

Rechargeable batteries have lower total cost of use and environmental impact than disposable batteries. Some rechargeable battery types are available in the same sizes as disposable types.

Rechargeable batteries have higher initial cost, but can be recharged very cheaply and used many times.


One rechargeable battery could save 1,000 batteries from going into landfills

1,000 batteries, or a (26,710-749)/26 ton battery could keep (2,671-7,871)/4 tons of Pb, almost 25 gram’s of Hg, a 45/8 cubic meter container or 5 tons of sulfuric acid out of landfills, save, a 270 cubic meter lake, 111/10 cubic yards of landfill space, almost 3/2 tons of black gold, 8,661 kWh energy, a 1,233/320 cubic meter container of oil, 147,000,000 Btu's of energy, a 9/10 cubic meter container of petroleum, enough energy to heat over 63/40 homes, a CFL for 268,491/584,000 years, a (45 – 90)/8 cubic meter tank of gasoline, enough oil to run the average car for 30,825/2 miles or circle the globe almost 1,150,800 times, a 30,825,000 cubic meter lake from being polluted, 6,165/16 tons of green house gases, 3,490,383/116,800,000 metric tons or 8,661/2,500 tons of coal, 2,997/200 tons of solid waste, 4,110 acres of soil from being polluted, 8,661/20 metric tons of limestone, 104,529,609/14,800,000 tons of air pollution per year, 8,661/31,250 tons of fly ash, 2,887/13,000 metric tons of H, 125 pounds of coltan, (26,710-749)/26 tons of heavy metal, (3-7)/2 tons of Co, 282,357/40,000 tons of CO2, (34,723-102,323)/80,000 tons of Te, 10 tons of alkali, 20 tons of gypsum, 502,400 tons of calcium fluoride, 1 ton of Nd, 11-33/2 tons of La, 2 tons of phosphoric acid, 8 ounces of SO3, $12,721.32

Table of rechargeable battery types Edit

Type Voltagea Energy densityb Powerc Effi.d E/$e Disch.f Cyclesg Lifeh
(V) (MJ/kg) (Wh/kg) (Wh/L) (W/kg) (%) (Wh/$) (%/month) (#) (years)
Lead-acid 2.1 0.11-0.14 30-40 60-75 180 70%-92% 5-8 3%-4% 500-800 5-8 (automotive battery), 20 (stationary)
Alkaline 1.5 0.31 85 250 50 99.9% 7.7 <0.3 100-1000 <5
Ni-iron (Ni-Fe) 1.2 0.18 50 100 65% 5-7.3[1] 20%-40% 50+
Ni-cadmium (Ni-Cd) 1.2 0.14-0.22 40-60 50-150 150 70%-90% 1.25-2.5[1] 20% 1500
NiH2 (NiH) 1.5 75 20,000 15+
NiMH 1.2 0.11-0.29 30-80 140-300 250-1000 66% 2.75 30% 500-1000
Ni-zinc (Ni-Zn) 1.7 0.22 60 170 900 2-3.3 100-500
Li ion 3.6 0.58 150-250 250-360 1800 80-90% 2.8-5[2] 5%-10% 1200 2-3
Li polymer 3.7 0.47-0.72 130-200 300 3000+ 99.8% 2.8-5.0 5% 500~1000 2-3
LiFePO4 3.25 0.32-0.4 80-120 170 [3] 1400 0.7-3.0 2000+[4] >10
Li sulfur (Li S)[5] 2.0 0.94-1.44[6] 400[7] 350 ~100
Li titanate 2.3 90 4000+ 87-95%r 0.5-1.0[8] 9000+ 20+
Thin film Li  ? 350 959  ?  ?p[9] 40000
ZnBr (ZnBr) 75-85
V redox (V) 1.15-1.55 25-35[10] 80%[11] 20%[11] 14,000[12] 10(stationary)[11]
NaS (NaS) 150 89%-92%
Molten salt 2.58 70-110[13] 160[1] 150-220 4.54[14] 3000+ 8+
Silver zinc (Ag-zn) (Ag-Zn) 1.86 130 240
Notes

For brevity, entries in the table had to be abbreviated. For a full description, please refer to the individual article about each type.

File:Secondary cell energy density.svg
  • b Energy density = energy/weight or energy/size, given in three different units
  • c Specific power = power/weight in W/kg
  • d Charge/discharge efficiency in %
  • e Energy/consumer price in W·h/US$ (approximately)
  • f Self-discharge rate in %/month
  • g Cycle durability in number of cycles
  • h Time durability in years
  • i VRLA or recombinant includes gel batteries and absorbed glass mats
  • p Pilot production
  • r Depending upon charge rate

Common rechargeable battery typesEdit

Nickel-cadmium battery (NiCd)

Created by Waldemar Jungner of Sweden in 1899, it used nickel oxide hydroxide and metallic Cd as electrodes. Cadmium is a toxic element, and was banned for most uses by the European Union in 2004. Ni-Cd batteries have been almost completely superseded by nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) batteries.

Nickel-metal hydride battery (NiMH)

First commercial types were available in 1989.[15] These are now a common consumer and industrial type. The battery has a H-absorbing alloy for the negative electrode instead of cadmium.

Lithium-ion battery

The technology behind Li-ion battery has not yet fully reached maturity. However, the batteries are the type of choice in many consumer electronics and have one of the best energy-to-mass ratios and a very slow loss of charge when not in use.

Lithium-ion polymer battery

These batteries are light in weight and can be made in any shape desired.

Less common typesEdit

Lithium sulfur battery
A new battery chemistry developed by Sion Power since 1994.[16] Claims superior energy to weight than current lithium technologies on the market. Also lower material cost may help this product reach the mass market.[17]
Thin film battery (TFB)
An emerging refinement of the lithium ion technology by Excellatron.[18] The developers claim a very large increase in recharge cycles, around 40,000 cycles. Higher charge and discharge rates. At least 5C charge rate. Sustained 60C discharge, and 1000C peak discharge rate. And also a significant increase in specific energy, and energy density.[19]
Also Infinite Power Solutions makes thin film batteries (TFB) for micro-electronic applications, that are flexible, rechargeable, solid-state Li batteries.[20]
Smart battery
A smart battery has the voltage monitoring circuit built inside. See also: Smart Battery System
C foam-based lead acid battery
Firefly Energy has developed a carbon foam-based Pb acid battery with a reported energy density of 30-40% more than their original 38 W·h/kg,[21] with long life and very high power density.
Potassium-ion battery
This type of rechargeable battery can deliver the best known cycleability, in order of a million cycles, due to the extraordinary electrochemical stability of K insertion/extraction materials such as Prussian blue.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

[1]

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