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Toyota Prius (XW20)

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Toyota Prius (XW20)
2nd Toyota Prius.jpg
Production (CO2) 2003–2009 (North America, Japan)
2004–present (China, Europe)
Model years 2004–2009
Assembly Tsutsumi, Japan (Toyota City)
Kariya, Aichi, Japan (Fujimatsu)
Changchun, Jilin, China (Chinese domestic market only)
Predecessor Toyota Prius (XW10)
Successor Toyota Prius (XW30)
Class Mid-size car
Body style 5-door liftback
Engine Toyota Hybrid System II
Gasoline: 1.5 L 1NZ-FXE DOHC I4 VVT-i
57 kW (76 hp) @ 5000 rpm
115 N·m (85 lb·ft) @ 4200 rpm
Electric: 500 V
50 kW (67 hp) @ 1200 rpm
400 N·m (295 lb·ft) @ 0 rpm
AT-PZEV
Hybrid system net horsepower: 110 hp (82 kW)
Transmission 1-speed planetary gear
Wheelbase 2,700 mm (106.3 in)
Length 4,450 mm (175.2 in)
Width 1,725 mm (67.9 in)
Height 1,490 mm (58.7 in)
Curb weight 1,317 kg (2,900 lb)

The Toyota Prius is a full hybrid electric mid-size car developed and manufactured by the Toyota Motor Corporation. The second generation Prius had been completely redesigned as a midsize hatchback. The XW20 series represented the second generation of the Toyota Prius, replacing its XW10 predecessor. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and California Air Resources Board (CARB) also rate the Prius as among the cleanest vehicles sold in the United States based on smog forming and toxic emissions in 2008.[1]

DevelopmentEdit

In 2003, the Prius was completely redesigned as a mid-size liftback, sized between the Corolla and the Camry, with redistributed mechanical and interior space significantly increasing rear-seat legroom and luggage room. The 2004 Prius is even more environmentally-friendly than the 1997–2003 model (according to the EPA), and is 6 inches (150 mm) longer than the previous version.[2] Its more aerodynamic Kammback body balances length and wind resistance resulting in a drag coefficient ( Cd) of 0.26.[3] The development effort, led by chief engineer Shigeyuki Hori, led to 530 patents for the vehicle.[4]

File:Toyota Paris 6.JPG

The Prius uses an all-electric A/C compressor for cooling, an industry first,[5] and also adds an electric power steering system to further minimize engine belt-driven engine accessories. Combined with a smaller and lighter NiMH battery, the XW20 is more powerful and more efficient than the XW11.[6] In the U.S., the battery pack of the 2004 Prius is warranted for 100,000 miles (160,000 km) or 8 years.[7] The warranty for hybrid components in California and the seven Northeastern states that have adopted the stricter California emission control standards is 150,000 miles (240,000 km) or 10 years.

It is classified as a SULEV (Super Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle) and is certified by California Air Resources Board as an "Advanced Technology Partial Zero Emission Vehicle" (AT-PZEV).[8]

File:2008 Toyota Prius (NHW20R) liftback 02.jpg

Among the Prius's options are Toyota's implementation of a Smart Key System (the feature can be user-deactivated), DVD navigation on the multi-function display, Vehicle Stability Control and Bluetooth for hands-free calling. A new Intelligent Parking Assist system was available in Japan and Europe since its launch.[9]

From 2005 to 2009, the second generation Prius had been built by FAW-Toyota in the city of Changchun for the Chinese market.[10] It was reported that a total of 2,152 Prius were sold in 2006 and 414 in 2007. The relatively low sales was blamed on high price, about US$15,000 higher than the equivalent in Japan or the U.S., caused by high duties on imported parts.[11] In early March 2008, Toyota cut the price of Prius by up to eight percent or US$3,000 to CN¥ 259,800 (US$36,500). It was thought that the sales dropped as a result of both a lack of acceptance and increased competition. The Honda Civic Hybrid was exported to China from 2007.[12]

Toyota's design and development efforts paid off during the 2005 European Car of the Year competition where the Prius won ahead of the Citroën C4 and the Ford Focus. The Prius and the Nissan Leaf are the only cars using drivewheel electric motors to have won this competition, where the usual winners are mainstream hatchbacks and sedans/saloons from major European manufacturers.

Research plug-insEdit

File:Toyota - Prius Plug-in HYBRID.jpg

From 2006 to 2009 Toyota tested 126 Prius models in the U.S., Japan and Europe that had the NiMH battery replaced with a lithium-ion battery pack.[13]

In July 2007, Toyota received both Japanese and American governmental approval to begin testing plug-in hybrid models using a modified NiMH battery on public roads.[14] The first plug-in Prius in America went to South Carolina.[15] Researchers at the Advanced Power and Energy Program at the University of California, Irvine and the Institute of Transportation Studies at the University of California, Berkeley began testing two specially made Prius and analyzing driver behavior, study air quality and energy use.[16][17]

Model year changesEdit

2003–2005 Toyota Prius (with black upper tail-lamp portions)
2005–2009 Toyota Prius (with clear upper tail-lamp portions)

In late 2005 (for the 2006 model year), Toyota introduced some minor cosmetic changes for the XW20, such as a slightly updated front-end, revised instruments, and repositioned rear seats.[18] Other changes comprised a higher-resolution liquid crystal display, as well as new optional features such as a backup camera, advanced air bags and an upgraded audio system with an auxiliary input.

In 2006 (2007 US model year) the Prius added side-curtain air bags (standard on all models.) A Touring Edition was introduced, with an elongated and larger rear spoiler as well as larger, sharper-pointed 7-spoke 16" magnesium wheels with plastic hubcap covers to protect them from scratches when parking against the curb. The Touring Edition also comes with a firmer European-style tuned suspension, standard high-intensity-discharge (HID) headlights and integrated (non-HID) fog lights.

In 2005, Toyota had to fix a software glitch that caused the Prius engine to enter "limp" mode with only-electric operation, following 68 stall complaints in the U.S. out of 160,000 worldwide sales.[19][20][21] In June 2006, Toyota also recalled about 170,000 Prius models from 2004–2006 due to a faulty intermediate shaft and sliding yoke in the power steering system.

Crash testing resultsEdit

U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) crash testing of the 2004 US model year Prius yielded a five-star driver and four-star passenger rating in the frontal-collision test (out of five stars). Side crash results were four out of five stars for both front and rear seats. The car scored four out of five stars in rollover testing.[22]

Insurance Institute for Highway Safety crash tests score the Prius Good overall in frontal collisions and Good overall in side-impact collisions in models equipped with side airbags.[23] A Poor score is given to models without side airbags.[24] Side curtain and torso airbags became standard on 2007 American models.

In 2004, EuroNCAP tested the Prius. It earned the following ratings: Adult Occupant: Star fullStar full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svg Child Occupant: Star fullStar full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svgStar empty.svg Pedestrian: Star fullStar full.svgStar empty.svgStar empty.svg.[25]

Official government fuel consumption dataEdit

File:Priuslcd.jpg

United StatesEdit

In the U.S., the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) test results must be posted on new vehicle windows, and are the only fuel consumption figures that can be advertised. EPA testing procedures for all vehicles were revised in 2007 in an attempt to better match what the average driver would achieve.[26]

The following data is taken from the EPA figures for the Prius: 48 mpg-US (4.9 L/100 km; 58 mpg-imp) city driving, 45 mpg-US (5.2 L/100 km; 54 mpg-imp) highway driving, 46 mpg-US (5.1 L/100 km; 55 mpg-imp) combined.[27]

United KingdomEdit

The official UK fuel consumption data, provided by the Department for Transport, rates the Prius as: 56.5 mpg-imp (5.00 L/100 km; 47.0 mpg-US) urban, 67.3 mpg-imp (4.20 L/100 km; 56.0 mpg-US) extra urban and 65.7 mpg-imp (4.30 L/100 km; 54.7 mpg-US) combined.[28]

Air pollutionEdit

In the United States the EPA measures a vehicle's air-borne pollution based on hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, particulate matter and formaldehyde before assigning them a score.[29] In most states the XW20 Prius is rated Tier II Bin 3.[30] CARB also does its own emission scoring, the XW20 Prius meets AT-PZEV certification in California and states that adopted CARB emission rules.[31]

The second generation Prius tied with the MINI Cooper D as the fourth least CO2-emitting vehicles at 104 g/km, behind the Ford Fiesta Econetic at 98 g/km and the tied Volkswagen Polo 1.4 TDI/SEAT Ibiza 1.4 TDI at 99 g/km – it is the least CO2-emitting gasoline powered car, since the Ford and the Polo/Ibiza (both of which are city cars) run on diesel.[32]

AwardsEdit

File:2007-2009 Toyota Prius Touring -- 03-16-2012.JPG

ReferencesEdit

  1. "2008 Toyota Prius" (Press release). Hybridcar.com. 2007-10-21. http://www.hybridcar.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=521&Itemid=103. Retrieved 2009-07-14. 
  2. Motor Trend 2004 Car of the Year Winner: Toyota Prius, Motor Trend. Retrieved 2007-12-21.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Motor Trend 2004 Car of the Year Winner: Toyota Prius. MotorTrend Magazine. Source Interlink Media. Retrieved on 2008-05-30.
  4. "Innovators: Shigeyuki Hori". Time. 2004-08-03. Archived from the original on 2004-03-20. http://web.archive.org/web/20040320005202/http://www.time.com/time/2004/innovators/200403/story.html. Retrieved 2010-01-10. 
  5. Bowden, R. (2004), 2004 Toyota Prius, About. Retrieved 2007-12-21.
  6. Test Drive Notes: 2004 Toyota Prius, Car Talk. Retrieved 2007-12-21.
  7. Pressroom : Our Point of View / Toyota. Blog.toyota.com. Retrieved on 2009-07-14.
  8. Motor Trend 2004 Car of the Year Winner: Toyota Prius, Motor Trend. Retrieved 2007-12-21.
  9. Toyota. Intelligent Parking Assist – Toyota Europe Corporate Website. Toyota.eu. Archived from the original on 2008-02-25. Retrieved on 2009-07-14.
  10. "Toyota Delays Production of Third Generation Prius in China". ChinaAutoWeb.com. http://chinaautoweb.com/2010/09/toyota-delays-production-of-third-generation-prius-in-china/. 
  11. Ian Rowley (2007-11-05). Prius sales yet to catch fire in China. BusinessWeek Eye on Asia blog. Retrieved on 2010-06-05.
  12. In China, Toyota cuts price of Prius by 8% due to slowing sales. AutoblogGreen (2008-03-07). Retrieved on 2010-04-28.
  13. Ohnsman, Alan (2009-09-14). Toyota Remains With Nickel After Lithium Prius Test. Bloomberg.com. Retrieved on 2009-09-15.
  14. Abuelsamid, Sam (2007-07-25). Toyota gets Japanese approval for PHEV Prius road tests. Autobloggreen.com. Retrieved on 2009-07-14.
  15. Abuelsamid, Sam (2007-07-18). South Carolina gets first plug-in hybrid. Autobloggreen.com. Retrieved on 2009-07-14.
  16. "Toyota plug-in hybrid hits the road". The Boston Globe. Associated Press. 2007-07-26. http://www.boston.com/business/globe/articles/2007/07/26/toyota_plug_in_hybrid_hits_the_road/. Retrieved 2009-12-22. 
  17. Newsinfo.inquirer.net. Newsinfo.inquirer.net. Retrieved on 2010-10-03.
  18. Prius' minor makeover. GoAuto. John Mellor (December 16, 2005). Retrieved on 2010-11-27.
  19. NAFTC eNews Toyota Prius Recall Announced – October 2005
  20. News.Yaho.com[dead link]
  21. Naftc.wvu.edu
  22. 2004 Toyota Prius 4-DR.
  23. IIHS-HLDI: Toyota Prius 2007–09 models. Iihs.org (2008-09-25). Retrieved on 2010-10-03.
  24. IIHS-HLDI: Toyota Prius 2004–06 models. Iihs.org (2006-10-06). Retrieved on 2010-10-03.
  25. Toyota Prius. Tests. EURO NCAP.
  26. Gartner, John (2007-05-14). "Hybrid Cars' Fantasy Mileage Ratings Drive Into the Sunset". Wired (CondéNet). http://www.wired.com/cars/futuretransport/news/2007/05/hybrid_mpg. Retrieved 2008-06-03. 
  27. 2008 Toyota Prius. U.S. EPA. Retrieved on 2007-12-25.
  28. Vehicle details for Prius 1.5 VVT-i Hybrid E-CVT. UK Department for Transport. Retrieved on 2008-09-02.
  29. Getting a Better Understaning of Vehicle Emissions Standards. Hybrid Cars (2006-03-31). Retrieved on 2009-07-14.
  30. the greenest vehicles of 2008. greenercars.org. Retrieved on 2009-07-14.
  31. Frequently Asked Questions on Toyota Prius Hybrid. Cleangreencar.co.nz. Archived from the original on February 25, 2008. Retrieved on 2009-07-14.
  32. Best on CO2 rankings. UK Department for Transport. Retrieved on 2008-05-30.
  33. 'Best Engineered Vehicle for 2004'.
  34. Toyota Prius is 2005 European Car of the Year.[dead link]
  35. 2007 EnerGuide Awards.
  36. 2006 Toyota Prius.
  37. 2007 Toyota Prius.
  38. "Switzerland, renowned for its clean Alpine air and pristine ski slopes, has named Toyota's Prius the world's greenest car". Reuters. 2007-07-27. http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSL2733658020070727. Retrieved 2010-11-30. 
  39. "Green engine of the year 2008". International engine of the year awards (UKIP Media & Events). 2008-06-30. http://www.ukipme.com/engineoftheyear/winners_08/green.html. Retrieved 2008-06-30. 
  40. 2008 Vehicle Dependability Study (VDS). J. D. Power. Retrieved on 2009-05-19.
  41. Dependability ratings by category. J. D. Power. Retrieved on 2009-05-19.
  42. The Top 10 Innovations of the Decade – ABC News. Abcnews.go.com (2000-05-02). Retrieved on 2009-12-22.

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