A wind farm is a group of wind turbines in the same location used to produce electric power. A large wind farm may consist of several hundred individual wind turbines, and cover an extended area of hundreds of square miles, but the land between the turbines may be used for agricultural or other purposes. A wind farm may also be located offshore.
Many of the largest operational onshore wind farms are located in the United States and China. The Gansu Wind Farm in China has over 5,000 MW installed with a goal of 20,000 MW by 2020. China has several other "wind power bases" of similar size.Template:Citation needed The Alta Wind Energy Center in California, United States is the largest onshore wind farm outside of China, with a capacity of 1020 MW of power. As of February 2012, the Walney Wind Farm in the United Kingdom is the largest offshore wind farm in the world at 367 MW, followed by Thanet Offshore Wind Project (300 MW), also in the United Kingdom. As of February 2012, the Fântânele-Cogealac Wind Farm in Romania is the largest onshore wind farm in Europe at 600 MW.
There are many large wind farms under construction and these include Sinus Holding Wind Farm (700 MW), Anholt Offshore Wind Farm (400 MW), BARD Offshore 1 (400 MW), Clyde Wind Farm (350 MW), Greater Gabbard wind farm (500 MW), Lincs Wind Farm (270 MW), London Array (1000 MW), Lower Snake River Wind Project (343 MW), Macarthur Wind Farm (420 MW), Shepherds Flat Wind Farm (845 MW), and Sheringham Shoal (317 MW).
As a general rule, economic wind generators require windspeed of 10 mph (16 km/h) or greater. An ideal location would have a near constant flow of non-turbulent wind throughout the year, with a minimum likelihood of sudden powerful bursts of wind. An important factor of turbine siting is also access to local demand or transmission capacity.
Usually sites are screened on the basis of a wind atlas, and validated with wind measurements. Meteorological wind data alone is usually not sufficient for accurate siting of a large wind power project. Collection of site specific data for wind speed and direction is crucial to determining site potential in order to finance the project. Local winds are often monitored for a year or more, and detailed wind maps constructed before wind generators are installed.
The wind blows faster at higher altitudes because of the reduced influence of drag. The increase in velocity with altitude is most dramatic near the surface and is affected by topography, surface roughness, and upwind obstacles such as trees or buildings. Typically, the increase of wind speeds with increasing height follows a wind profile power law, which predicts that wind speed rises proportionally to the seventh root of altitude. Doubling the altitude of a turbine, then, increases the expected wind speeds by 10% and the expected power by 34%.
Individual turbines are interconnected with a medium voltage (usually 34.5 kV) power collection system and communications network. At a substation, this medium-voltage electrical current is increased in voltage with a transformer for connection to the high voltage transmission system. Construction of a land-based wind farm requires installation of the collector system and substation, and possibly access roads to each turbine site.
Onshore installations Edit
|Wind farm|| Current|
|Alta (Oak Creek-Mojave)||1,320||Template:Flagu|||
|Buffalo Gap Wind Farm||523.3||Template:Flagu|||
|Capricorn Ridge Wind Farm||662.5||Template:Flagu|||
|Dabancheng Wind Farm||500||Template:Flagu|||
|Fântânele-Cogealac Wind Farm||600||Template:Flagu|||
|Fowler Ridge Wind Farm||599.8||Template:Flagu|||
|Horse Hollow Wind Energy Center||735.5||Template:Flagu|||
|Jaisalmer Wind Park||1,064||Template:Flagu|||
|Meadow Lake Wind Farm||500||Template:Flagu|||
|Panther Creek Wind Farm||458||Template:Flagu|||
|Roscoe Wind Farm||781.5||Template:Flagu|||
|Shepherds Flat Wind Farm||845||Template:Flagu|
|Sweetwater Wind Farm||585.3||Template:Flagu|||
Onshore turbine installations in hilly or mountainous regions tend to be on ridgelines generally three kilometres or more inland from the nearest shoreline. This is done to exploit the topographic acceleration as the wind accelerates over a ridge. The additional wind speeds gained in this way can increase energy produced because more wind goes through the turbines. The exact position of each turbines matters, because a difference of 30m could potentially double output. This careful placement is referred to as 'micro-siting'.
Offshore installations Edit
Europe is the leader in offshore wind energy, with the first offshore wind farm being installed in Denmark in 1991. As of 2010, there are 39 offshore wind farms in waters off Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and the United Kingdom, with a combined operating capacity of 2,396 MW. More than 100 GW (or 100, 000 MW) of offshore projects are proposed or under development in Europe. The European Wind Energy Association has set a target of 40 GW installed by 2020 and 150 GW by 2030.
As of February 2012, the Walney Wind Farm in United Kingdom is the largest offshore wind farm in the world at 367 MW, followed by Thanet Offshore Wind Project (300 MW), also in the UK. The London Array (630 MW) is the largest project under construction.
|Wind farm||Capacity (MW)||Country||Turbines and model||Commissioned||References|
|Walney||367||Template:Flagu||102 × Siemens SWT-3.6||2012|||
|Thanet||300||Template:Flagu||100 × Vestas V90-3MW||2010|||
|Horns Rev II||209||Template:Flagu||91 × Siemens 2.3–93||2009|||
|Rødsand II||207||Template:Flagu||90 × Siemens 2.3–93||2010|||
|Lynn and Inner Dowsing||194||Template:Flagu||54 × Siemens 3.6–107||2008|||
|Robin Rigg (Solway Firth)||180||Template:Flagu||60 × Vestas V90-3MW||2010|||
|Gunfleet Sands||172||Template:Flagu||48 × Siemens 3.6–107||2010|||
|Nysted (Rødsand I)||166||Template:Flagu||72 × Siemens 2.3||2003|||
|Ormonde||150||Template:Flagu||30 × REpower 5.0||2011|||
Offshore wind turbines are less obtrusive than turbines on land, as their apparent size and noise is mitigated by distance. Because water has less surface roughness than land (especially deeper water), the average wind speed is usually considerably higher over open water. Capacity factors (utilisation rates) are considerably higher than for onshore locations.
The province of Ontario in Canada is pursuing several proposed locations in the Great Lakes, including the suspended Trillium Power Wind 1 approximately 20 km from shore and over 400 MW in size. Other Canadian projects include one on the Pacific west coast.
As of 2010, there are no offshore wind farms in the United States. However, projects are under development in wind-rich areas of the East Coast, Great Lakes, and Pacific coast.
Installation and service / maintenance of off-shore wind farms are a specific challenge for technology and economic operation of a wind farm. Service vessels have to be operated nearly 24/7 (availability higher than 80% of time) to get sufficient amortisation from the wind turbines.Template:Citation needed Therefore special fast service vehicles for installation (like Wind Turbine Shuttle) as well as for maintenance (including heave compensation and heave compensated working platforms to allow the service staff to enter the wind turbine also at difficult weather conditions) are required. So-called inertial and optical based Ship Stabilization and Motion Control systems (iSSMC) are used for that.
By region Edit
|Wind farm|| Installed |
|Collgar Wind Farm||206|| UBS Investment Bank & |
Retail Employees Superannuation Trust
|Capital Wind Farm||140.7||Infigen Energy||Template:Flag|
|Hallett Group||298||AGL Energy||Template:Flag|
|Lake Bonney Wind Farm||278||Infigen Energy||Template:Flag|
|Waubra Wind Farm||192|| Acciona Energy & |
ANZ Infrastructure Services
|Woolnorth Wind Farm||140||Roaring 40s & Hydro Tasmania||Template:Flagu|
|Anse-à-Valleau Wind Farm||100||Template:Coord||Template:QC|
|Caribou Wind Park||99||70 km west of Bathurst||Template:NB|
|Bear Mountain Wind Park||120||Dawson Creek||Template:BC|
|Centennial Wind Power Facility||150||Swift Current||Template:SK|
|Enbridge Ontario Wind Farm||181||Kincardine||Template:ON|
|Erie Shores Wind Farm||99||Port Burwell||Template:ON|
|Jardin d'Eole Wind Farm||127||Saint-Ulric||Template:QC|
|Kent Hills Wind Farm||96||Riverside-Albert||Template:NB|
|Melancthon EcoPower Centre||199||Melancthon||Template:ON|
|Port Alma Wind Farm||101||Chatham-Kent||Template:ON|
|Chatham Wind Farm||101||Chatham-Kent||Template:ON|
|Prince Township Wind Farm||189||Sault Ste. Marie||Template:ON|
|St. Joseph Wind Farm||138||Montcalm||Template:MB|
|St. Leon Wind Farm||99||St. Leon||Template:MB|
|Wolfe Island Wind Project||197||Frontenac Islands||Template:ON|
In just five years, China leapfrogged the rest of the world in wind energy production, going from 2,599 MW of capacity in 2006 to 62,733 MW at the end of 2011. However, the rapid growth outpaced China's infrastructure and new construction slowed significantly in 2012.
At the end of 2009, wind power in China accounted for 25.1 gigawatts (GW) of electricity generating capacity, and China has identified wind power as a key growth component of the country's economy. With its large land mass and long coastline, China has exceptional wind resources. Researchers from Harvard and Tsinghua University have found that China could meet all of their electricity demands from wind power by 2030.
By the end of 2008, at least 15 Chinese companies were commercially producing wind turbines and several dozen more were producing components. Turbine sizes of 1.5 MW to 3 MW became common. Leading wind power companies in China were Goldwind, Dongfang Electric, and Sinovel along with most major foreign wind turbine manufacturers. China also increased production of small-scale wind turbines to about 80,000 turbines (80 MW) in 2008. Through all these developments, the Chinese wind industry appeared unaffected by the global financial crisis, according to industry observers.
According to the Global Wind Energy Council, the development of wind energy in China, in terms of scale and rhythm, is absolutely unparalleled in the world. The National People's Congress permanent committee passed a law that requires the Chinese energy companies to purchase all the electricity produced by the renewable energy sector.
European Union Edit
The European Union has a total installed wind capacity of 93,957 MW. Germany has the third largest capacity in the world (after China and the United States) with an installed capacity was 29,060 MW at the End of 2011, and Spain has 21,674 MW. Italy, France and United Kingdom each has between 6,000 and 7,000 MW. But energy production can be different than capacity – in 2010, Spain had the highest European wind power production with 43 TWh compared to Germany's 35 TWh.
Whitelee Wind Farm near Glasgow, Scotland is Europe's largest complete windfarm with a total capacity of 322 MW. In 2012 Europe's largest windfarm will be Fântânele-Cogealac Wind Farm near Constanța, Romania with 600 MW (540 MW already operational).
In 2006, the British government gave planning consent for the world's largest offshore wind farm, the 'London Array'. As of 2012 it is being built 12 miles off of the Kent coast and will include 341 turbines when finished.
An important limiting factor of wind power is variable power generated by wind farms. In most locations the wind blows only part of the time, which means that there has to be back-up capacity of conventional generating capacity to cover periods that the wind is not blowing. To address this issue it has been proposed to create a "supergrid" to connect national grids together across western Europe, ranging from Denmark across the southern North Sea to England and the Celtic Sea to Ireland, and further south to France and Spain especially in Higueruela which was considered for some time the biggest wind farm in the world. The idea is that by the time a low pressure area has moved away from Denmark to the Baltic Sea the next low appears off the coast of Ireland. Therefore, while it is true that the wind is not blowing everywhere all of the time, it will always be blowing somewhere.
There are currently no large scale wind farms operational in South Africa, though a number are in the initial planning stages. Most of these are earmarked for locations along the Eastern Cape coastline. Eskom has constructed one small scale prototype windfarm at Klipheuwel in the Western Cape and another demonstrator site is near Darling with phase 1 completed. The first commercial wind farm, Coega Wind Farm in Port Elisabeth, was developed by the Belgian company Electrawinds.
|Power plant||Province|| Date|
| Installed Capacity|
|Coega Wind Farm||Eastern Cape||2010||1.8 (45)||Operational||Template:Coord|||
|Darling Wind Farm||Western Cape||2008||5.2 (13.2)||Under construction||Template:Coord|||
|Klipheuwel Wind Farm||Western Cape||2002||3.16||Operational (Prototype/Research)||Template:Coord|||
|Sere Wind Farm||Western Cape||2012||(100)||Funding phase||Template:Coord|||
United States Edit
New installations place the U.S. on a trajectory to generate 20% of the nation’s electricity by 2030 from wind energy. Growth in 2008 channeled some $17 billion into the economy, positioning wind power as one of the leading sources of new power generation in the country, along with natural gas. Wind projects completed in 2008 accounted for about 42% of the entire new power-producing capacity added in the U.S. during the year.
At the end of 2008, about 85,000 people were employed in the U.S. wind industry, and GE Energy was the largest domestic wind turbine manufacturer. Wind projects boosted local tax bases and revitalized the economy of rural communities by providing a steady income stream to farmers with wind turbines on their land. Wind power in the U.S. provides enough electricity to power the equivalent of nearly 9 million homes, avoiding the emissions of 57 million tons of carbon each year and reducing expected carbon emissions from the electricity sector by 2.5%.
Texas, with 10,929 MW of capacity, has the most installed wind power capacity of any U.S. state, followed by California with 4,570 MW and Iowa with 4,536 MW. The Alta Wind Energy Center (1,020 MW) in California is the nation's largest wind farm in terms of capacity. Altamont Pass Wind Farm is the largest wind farm in the U.S. in terms of the number of individual turbines.
Several operate of the the North Sea the coast of Belgium. There is at least 1 with A5 MW turbines REpower 5M facility among them.
Environmental impact Edit
Compared to the environmental impact of traditional energy sources, the environmental impact of wind power is relatively minor. Wind power consumes no fuel, and emits no air pollution, unlike fossil fuel power sources. The energy consumed to manufacture and transport the materials used to build a wind power plant is equal to the new energy produced by the plant within a few months. While a wind farm may cover a large area of land, many land uses such as agriculture are compatible, with only small areas of turbine foundations and infrastructure made unavailable for use.
There are reports of bird and bat mortality at wind turbines as there are around other artificial structures. The scale of the ecological impact may or may not be significant, depending on specific circumstances. Prevention and mitigation of wildlife fatalities, and protection of peat bogs, affect the siting and operation of wind turbines.
There are anecdotal reports of negative effects from noise on people who live very close to wind turbines. Peer-reviewed research has generally not supported these statements.
Effect on power grid Edit
Utility-scale wind farms must have access to transmission lines to transport energy. The wind farm developer may be obligated to install extra equipment or control systems in the wind farm to meet the technical standards set by the operator of a transmission line. The company or person that develops the wind farm can then sell the power on the grid through the transmission lines and ultimately chooses whether to hold on to the rights or sell the farm or parts of it to big business like GE, for example.
Ground radar interference Edit
Wind farms can interfere with ground radar systems used for defence, weather and air traffic control. The large, rapidly moving blades of the turbines can return signals to the radar that can be mistaken as an aircraft or weather pattern. Actual aircraft and weather patterns around wind farms can be accurately detected, as there is no fundamental physical constraint preventing that. But ageing radar infrastructure is significantly challenged with the task. The US military is using wind turbines on some bases, including Barstow near the radar test facility.
The level of interference is a function of the signal processors used within the radar, the speed of the aircraft and the relative orientation of wind turbines/aircraft with respect to the radar. An aircraft flying above the wind farm's turning blades could become impossible to detect because the blade tips can be moving at nearly aircraft velocity. Studies are currently being performed to determine the level of this interference and will be used in future site planning. Issues include masking (shadowing), clutter (noise), and signal alteration. Radar issues have stalled as much as 10,000 MW of projects in USA.
Some very long range radars are not affected by wind farms.
Permanent problem solving include Non-Initiation Window to hide the turbines while still tracking aircraft over the wind farm, and a similar method mitigates the false returns. England's Newcastle Airport is using a short-term mitigation; to "blank" the turbines on the radar map with a software patch. Wind turbine blades using stealth technology are being developed to mitigate radar reflection problems for aviation. As well as stealth windfarms, the future development of infill radar systems could filter out the turbine interference.
In early 2011, the U.S. government awarded a program to build a radar/wind turbine analysis tool. This tool will allow developers to predict the impact of a wind farm on a radar system before construction, thus allowing rearrangement of the turbines or even the entire wind farm to avoid negative impacts on the radar system.
A mobile radar system, the Lockheed Martin TPS-77, has shown in recent tests that it can distinguish between aircraft and wind turbines, and more than 170 TPS-77 radars are in use around the world. In Britain, the Lockheed Martin TPS-77 will be delivered and installed in November 2011 at Trimingham in Norfolk, removing military objections to a series of offshore wind farms in the North Sea. A second TPS-77 is to be installed in the Scottish Borders, overcoming objections to a 48-turbine wind farm at Fallago.
The professor of atmospheric science Somnath Baidya Roy of the University of Illinois, in a study published in October 2010 in the scientific journal PNAS shows that in the immediate vicinity of wind farms, the climate is cooler during the day and slightly warmer during the night than the surrounding areas. According to Roy, the effect is due to the turbulence generated by the blades.
In another study conducted by Gene Takle and Julie Lundquist University of Colorado, presented at San Francisco conference of the American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting ( 13–18 December 2010), the analysis carried out on corn and soybean crops in the central areas of the United States has noted that the microclimate generated by wind turbines improves crops as it prevents the spring and autumn frosts, and it reduces the action of pathogenic fungi that grow on the leaves. Even at the height of summer heat, the lowering of 2.5–3 degrees above the crops due to turbulence caused by the blades, can make a difference for the cultivation of corn.
See also Edit
- Floating wind turbine
- Renewable energy commercialisation
- Sea breeze
- Wave farm
- Wind energy software
- Wind turbines on public display
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 Terra-Gen Press Release, 17 April 2012
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 CEZ Group: The Largest Wind Farm in Europe Goes Into Trial Operation
- ↑ Wind energy-- the facts: a guide to the technology, economics and future of wind power page 32 EWEA 2009. Retrieved 13 March 2011.
- ↑ Meteorological Tower Installation
- ↑ IEC61400-1 site assessment
- ↑ Historic Wind Development in New England: The Age of PURPA Spawns the "Wind Farm". U.S. Department of Energy (10/9/2008). Retrieved on 24 April 2010.
- ↑ Wind Energy Center Alumni and the Early Wind Industry. University of Massachusetts Amherst (2010). Retrieved on 24 April 2010.
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 Drilling Down: What Projects Made 2008 Such a Banner Year for Wind Power?
- ↑ 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 AWEA: U.S. Wind Energy Projects – Texas
- ↑ China – Dabancheng Wind Farm now has a combined generating capacity of 500 MW
- ↑ 11.0 11.1 AWEA: U.S. Wind Energy Projects – Indiana
- ↑ Started in August 2001, the Jaisalmer based facility crossed 1,000 Mw capacity to achieve this milestone
- ↑ E.ON Delivers 335-MW of Wind in Texas
- ↑ 14.0 14.1 Environmental and Energy Study Institute (October 2010). Offshore Wind Energy.
- ↑ Walney. 4COffshore (9 February 2012). Retrieved on 9 February 2012.
- ↑ Template:Cite news
- ↑ Thanet. The Engineer Online (25 July 2008). Retrieved on 26 November 2008.
- ↑ Template:Cite news
- ↑ Horns Rev II turbines
- ↑ E.ON finishes Rødsand II Business Week, 14 July 2010. Retrieved 11 September 2010.
- ↑ 21.0 21.1 Operational offshore wind farms in Europe, end 2009 EWEA. Retrieved 23 October 2010.
- ↑ Interactive Map for Marine Estate
- ↑ Interactive Map for Marine Estate
- ↑ Wind farm's first turbines active
- ↑ Interactive Map for Marine Estate
- ↑ 26.0 26.1 26.2  UK Wind Energy Database
- ↑ Interactive Map for Marine Estate
- ↑ Christensen, Allan S. & Madsen, Morten. Supply Chain study on the Danish offshore wind industry page 33-42 Offshore Center Denmark, 29. August 2005. Retrieved 23 October 2010.
- ↑ Introduction to the (Nysted offshore) park. Retrieved on 19 August 2010.
- ↑ Interactive Map for Marine Estate
- ↑ Template:Cite journal
- ↑ Offshore wind development hits a snag in Ontario Alberta Oil Magazine, April 2011. Retrieved 29 September 2011.
- ↑ Template:Cite news
- ↑ Naikun Wind Development, Inc.. Retrieved on 21 May 2008.
- ↑ www.collgarwindfarm.com.au/
- ↑ Australian Energy Market Operator Limited (2010). South Australian Supply Demand Outlook p. 35.
- ↑ Parliament of Australia (19 February 2010). Operating wind farms by Commonwealth Electoral Division Background note.
- ↑ New, Robert (November 2010). Electricity generation Major development projects – October 2010 listing Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics, p. 8.
- ↑ Canadian Wind Energy Association (2010). Map of Installations. Retrieved on 17 September 2010.
- ↑ Global Wind Energy Council
- ↑ Release of global wind statistics: Wind Energy Powers Ahead Despite Economic Turmoil , Global Wind Energy Council
- ↑ GWEC Global Wind Statistics 2011
- ↑ Turbine makers take a breather, China Daily, 12 April 2012
- ↑ Lars Kroldrup. Gains in Global Wind Capacity Reported Green Inc., 15 February 2010.
- ↑ Template:Cite news
- ↑ Oceans of Opportunity: Harnessing Europe’s largest domestic energy resource pp. 18–19.
- ↑ China Could Replace Coal with Wind. Ecogeek.org. Retrieved on 31 January 2010.
- ↑ Caprotti Federico (2009) China's Cleantech Landscape: The Renewable Energy Technology Paradox ''Sustainable Development Law & Policy '' Spring 2009: 6–10 (PDF). Retrieved on 31 January 2010.
- ↑ 49.0 49.1 REN21 (2009). Renewables Global Status Report: 2009 Update p. 16.
- ↑ Adrian Lema and K. Ruby, “Towards a policy model for climate change mitigation: China's experience with wind power development and lessons for developing countries”, Energy for Sustainable Development, Vol. 10, Issue 4.
- ↑ CN : China ranks third in worldwide wind energy – Alternative energy news. Instalbiz.com (4 January 2010). Retrieved on 31 January 2010.
- ↑ "Wind in power 2011 European statistics" p4. European Wind Energy Association February 2012. Retrieved 17 June 2012.
- ↑ GLOBAL WIND 2009 REPORT. Global Wind energy council (March 2010). Archived from the original on 5 July 2010. Retrieved on 9 January 2011.
- ↑ Spain becomes the first European wind energy producer after overcoming Germany for the first time. Eolic Energy News (31 December 2010). Retrieved on 14 May 2011.
- ↑ Fantanele-Cogealac Wind Park (October 2011). Retrieved on 14 October 2011.
- ↑ ČEZ says its wind farm in Romania is the biggest in Europe. Prague Daily Monitor (12 October 2012). Archived from the original on 1 February 2013. Retrieved on 12 October 2012.
- ↑ Peter Fairley, A Supergrid for Europe: A radical proposal for a high-tech power grid could make possible the continent's vast expansion of renewable energy sources, MIT Technology Review, Wednesday, March 15, 2006
- ↑ Renewable energy (PDF), p. 11.
- ↑ Electrawinds. Coega Development Corporation. Retrieved on 6 January 2010.
- ↑ Swanepoel, Esmarie (11 September 2009). Belgium company plans R1,2bn Eastern Cape wind farm. Engineering News (Creamer Media). Retrieved on 6 January 2010.
- ↑ 15-megawatt wind farm planned for Kouga. Cacadu District Municipality. Retrieved on 6 January 2010.
- ↑ Electrawinds launches 1st wind turbine at Coega. MSN. Retrieved on 13 May 2010.
- ↑ Development of a 57.5MW Wind Energy Project. Public Process Consultants. Retrieved on 9 October 2010.
- ↑ 64.0 64.1 Wind energy. Department of Minerals and Energy (South Africa). Retrieved on 11 January 2010.
- ↑ Minister switches on the Darling Wind Farm. CEF (2008/05/23). Retrieved on 21 April 2010.
- ↑ KLIPHEUWEL WINDFARM. Eskom. Archived from the original on 10 June 2011. Retrieved on 11 January 2010.
- ↑ Klipheuwel shows the way in renewable energy. Engineering News (Creamer Media) (23 April 2004). Retrieved on 11 January 2010.
- ↑ SA to get third wind farm. South Africa: The Good News (2009/03/29). Retrieved on 21 April 2010.
- ↑ 2012 Q3 Report: American Wind Energy Third Quarter Market Report. AWEA (17 October 2012).
- ↑ 70.0 70.1 2012 AWEA Third Quarter 2012 Market Report
- ↑ http://web.archive.org/web/20100127013215/http://www.awea.org/publications/reports/4Q09.pdf
- ↑ 72.0 72.1 U.S. Wind Energy Industry Installs over 1,600 MW in Third Quarter
- ↑ American Wind Energy Association (2009). Annual Wind Industry Report, Year Ending 2008 p. 17.
- ↑ 74.0 74.1 American Wind Energy Association (2009). Annual Wind Industry Report, Year Ending 2008 pp. 9–10.
- ↑ Encyclopedia of Earth Altamont Pass, California
- ↑ Buller, Erin (11 July 2008). Capturing the wind. Uinta County Herald. Retrieved on 4 December 2008."The animals don’t care at all. We find cows and antelope napping in the shade of the turbines." – Mike Cadieux, site manager, Wyoming Wind Farm
- ↑ Why Australia needs wind power
- ↑ Template:Cite news
- ↑ W. David Colby, Robert Dobie, Geoff Leventhall, David M. Lipscomb, Robert J. McCunney, Michael T. Seilo, Bo Søndergaard. "Wind Turbine Sound and Health Effects: An Expert Panel Review", Canadian Wind Energy Association, December 2009.
- ↑ Wind farm interference showing up on Doppler radar National Weather Service. Retrieved 9 February 2011.
- ↑ Brenner, Michael et al. Wind Farms and Radar Federation of American Scientists, January 2008. Retrieved 9 February 2011.
- ↑ Greenemeier, Larry. Wind turbine or airplane? New radar could cut through the signal clutter Scientific American, 3 September 2010. Retrieved 9 February 2011.
- ↑ About the R-2508 Airspace United States Air Force. Retrieved 9 February 2011.
- ↑ Hayes, Keith. MCLB Barstow wind turbine a Marine Corps first United States Marine Corps, 27 March 2009. Retrieved 9 February 2011.
- ↑ 85.0 85.1 Goodwin, Jacob. DHS asks Raytheon to study impact of wind turbines on radar systems Government Security News, 3 January 2011. Retrieved 9 February 2011.
- ↑ Radars and radio signals Wind Energy Facts. Retrieved 9 February 2011.
- ↑ Levitan, David. Wind turbines cause radar cone of silence IEEE, 9 February 2010. Retrieved 9 February 2011.
- ↑ Air Force: Cape Wind farm would have no impact on radar station Cape Cod today, 17 November 2007. Retrieved 9 February 2011.
- ↑ P Jago, N Taylor. Wind turbines and aviation interests – European experience and practice pages 10–13, Stasys, 2002. Retrieved 9 February 2011.
- ↑ Learmount, David. Newcastle airport radar develops fix for wind turbine interference Flight Global, 17 November 2010. Retrieved 9 February 2011.
- ↑ QinetiQ and Vestas test 'stealth technology' for wind turbines Renewable Energy Focus, 26 October 2009. Retrieved 22 September 2010.
- ↑ 'Stealth' wind turbine blade may end radar problem Reuters via Cnet, 27 January 2010. Retrieved 22 September 2010.
- ↑ Fairly, Peter. Stealth-Mode Wind Turbines Technology Review, 2 November 2009. Retrieved 22 September 2010.
- ↑ Appleton, Steve. Stealth blades – a progress report QinetiQ. Retrieved 22 September 2010.
- ↑ Press Release: Government Awards Program To Reduce Effects of Wind Turbines on Air Traffic Control System
- ↑ Robert Mendick (27 August 2011). Military radar deal paves way for more wind farms across Britain. The Telegraph.
- ↑ Roy, Somnath Baidya. Impacts of wind farms on surface air temperatures Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 4 October 2010. Retrieved 10 March 2011.
- ↑ Takle, Gene and Lundquist, Julie. Wind turbines on farmland may benefit crops Ames Laboratory, 16 December 2010. Retrieved 10 March 2011.
- Righter, Robert W. Windfall: Wind Energy in America Today (University of Oklahoma Press; 2011) 219 pages; looks at the land-use decisions involved in setting up a wind farm.
- World Wind Energy Association
- Wind Power in the United States: Technology, Economic, and Policy Issues (53p), Congressional Research Service, June 2008
- Database of projects throughout the World
- Database of offshore wind projects in North America
- Wind Project Community Organizing
- World Wind Energy Association
- 4C Offshore's Global Wind Farm Interactive Map and Database
- The Largest Windparks — Index of planned and operational wind farms at RE-Database
- Sustainable energy