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A zero-emissions vehicle, or ZEV is a vehicle itself that produces no emissions or pollution from the vehicle when stationary or operating.Emissions of concern include particulates (soot), hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and various oxides of nitrogen. Although not considered an emission by the CARB definition, carbon dioxide is one of the most important greenhouse gas implicated in global warming scenarios.
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A '''zero-emissions vehicle''', or '''ZEV''', is a vehicle that emits no [[motor vehicle emissions|tailpipe pollutants]] from the onboard source of power.<ref name="CARB01">{{Cite web|url=http://www.arb.ca.gov/html/gloss.htm#Z|title=Glossary of Air Pollution Terms: ZEV|author=[[California Air Resources Board]]|date=2009-03-09|accessdate=2009-04-21}}</ref><ref name="AboutZEV">{{Cite web|url=http://alternativefuels.about.com/od/glossary/g/ZEV.htm |title=What is a ZEV - Zero Emissions Vehicle?|author= Christine & Scott Gable|publisher=About.com: Hybrid Carts & Alt Fuels|accessdate=2008-04-21}}</ref> Harmful pollutants to the health and the environment include [[particulate]]s ([[soot]]), [[hydrocarbon]]s, [[carbon monoxide]], [[ozone]], [[lead]], and various [[NOx|oxides of nitrogen]]. Although not considered emission pollutants by the original [[California Air Resources Board]] (CARB) or [[United States Environmental Protection Agency|U.S. Environmental Protection Agency]] (EPA) definitions, the most recent common use of the term also includes [[volatile organic compound]]s, several air toxics, and global pollutants such as [[carbon dioxide]] and other [[greenhouse gas]]es.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/vehicles/emissions_pollutants.html |title=Alternative & Advanced Vehicles: Pollutants and Health|author=Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center|publisher=Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, [[US DOE]]|accessdate=2009-04-21}}</ref> Examples of zero emission vehicles include [[human-powered vehicle|muscle-powered]] vehicles such as [[bicycle]]s; [[battery electric vehicle]]s, which typically shift emissions to the location where the electricity is generated e.g. coal or natural gas power plant;<ref>http://www.sierraclub.org/coal/map/</ref> and [[fuel cell]] [[hydrogen vehicle|vehicles powered by hydrogen]], which typically shift emissions to the location where the hydrogen is generated. Hydrogen-powered vehicles are not strictly zero-emissions, as they do emit [[water]] or [[water vapor]], although they are still usually included in this category. Emissions from the manufacturing process are ignored in this definition, although more emissions are created during manufacture than during a vehicle's operating lifetime.<ref>http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/green-living-blog/2010/sep/23/carbon-footprint-new-car</ref><ref>http://environmentalresearchweb.org/cws/article/news/39408</ref><ref>http://www.epiphergy.com/uploads/es702178s-file004.pdf</ref>
   
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==Terminology==
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[[File:MHV Reva Electric 02.jpg|thumb|right|The Indian [[REVA]] [[electric car]] is a zero emissions vehicle (ZEV) sold in [[India]], several European countries, [[Japan]], [[Australia]], and [[Costa Rica]].]]
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[[File:FCX Clarity.jpg|thumb|The [[Honda FCX Clarity]] launched in 2008 is a [[fuel cell]] [[hydrogen vehicle]] compliant with the ZEV standard and it is sold in [[Japan]] and in the U.S. (only in [[Los Angeles]]).]]
   
===Zero-emissions Vehicle (ZEV)===
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===Well-to-wheel emissions===
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The term zero-emissions or ZEV, as originally coined by the [[California Air Resources Board]] (CARB), refers only to [[motor vehicle emissions|tailpipe pollutants]] from the onboard source of power. Therefore CARB's definition is accounting only for pollutants emitted at the point of the vehicle operation, and the clean air benefits are usually local because depending on the source of the electricity used to recharge the batteries, air pollutant emissions are shifted to the location of the electricity generation plants.<ref name=TwoBillion>{{Cite book| last = Sperling, Daniel and Deborah Gordon | title = Two billion cars: driving toward sustainability |year =2009| pages=22 to 26|publisher =[[Oxford University Press]], New York| isbn = 978-0-19-537664-7}}</ref>
   
* No tailpipe emissions
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In a similar manner, a zero-emissions vehicle does not emit [[greenhouse gases]] from the onboard source of power at the point of operation, but a [[Life cycle assessment#Well-to-wheel|well-to-wheel assessment]] takes into account the [[carbon dioxide]] and other emissions produced during [[electricity generation]], and therefore, the extent of the real benefit depends on the fuel and technology used for [[electricity generation]]. From the perspective of a full [[life cycle analysis]], the electricity used to recharge the batteries must be generated from renewable or clean sources such as [[wind power|wind]], [[solar energy|solar]], [[hydroelectric]], or [[nuclear power]] for ZEVs to have almost none or zero well-to-wheel emissions.<ref name=TwoBillion/><ref name=PEVs>{{Cite book|title=Plug-In Electric Vehicles: What Role for Washington?|editor=[[David B. Sandalow]]|year=2009 |publisher=[[The Brookings Institution]]|isbn=978-0-8157-0305-1|edition=1st.|url=http://www.brookings.edu/press/Books/2009/pluginelectricvehicles.aspx|pages=2–5}}</ref> On the other hand, if ZEVs are recharged from electricity exclusively generated by [[coal]]-fired plants, they produce more greenhouse gas emissions than if not.<ref name="Palm2009">{{Cite web|last=Palm |first=Erik |url=http://news.cnet.com/8301-11128_3-10231102-54.html |title=Study: Electric cars not as green as you think &#124; Green Tech - CNET News |publisher=News.cnet.com |date=2009-05-01|accessdate=2010-04-18}}</ref>
* No evaporative emissions
 
* No onboard emission-control systems that can deteriorate over time
 
* No emissions from gasoline refining or sales
 
   
At the moment, a number of vehicles fulfill in these requirements. Notable are battery-powered electric vehicles, vehicles operating on fuel cells, compressed air vehicles and a number of vehicles operating on other energy sources (see below).
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Other countries have a different definition of ZEV, noteworthy the more recent inclusion of [[greenhouse gases]], as many European rules now regulate [[carbon dioxide]] CO<sub>2</sub> emissions. CARB role in regulating greenhouse gases began in 2004 based on the 2002 [[Fran Pavley#Environmental legislation|Pavley Act (AB 1493)]], but blocked by lawsuits and by EPA in 2007, by rejecting the required waiver. Additional responsibilities were granted to CARB by California's [[Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006]] (AB 32), which includes the mandate to set [[low-carbon fuel standard]]s.<ref name=TwoBillion/>
   
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As a result of an investigation into false advertising regarding "zero-emissions" claims, the [[Advertising Standards Authority (United Kingdom)|Advertising Standards Authority]] (ASA) in the UK ruled in March 2010 to ban an advertisement from Renault UK regarding it's "zero-emissions vehicles" because the ad breached CAP (Broadcast) TV Code rules 5.1.1, 5.1.2 (Misleading advertising) and 5.2.1 (Misleading advertising- Evidence) and 5.2.6 (Misleading advertising-Environmental claims.)<ref>[http://www.asa.org.uk/Complaints-and-ASA-action/Adjudications/2010/3/Renault-UK-Ltd/TF_ADJ_48291.aspx ASA Adjudication on Renault UK Ltd]</ref>
   
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Greenhouse gasses and other pollutant emissions are generated by vehicle manufacturing processes. The emissions from manufacture are many factors larger than the emissions from tailpipes, even in gasoline engine vehicles. Most reports on ZEV's impact to the climate do not take into account these manufacturing emissions.<ref>http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/green-living-blog/2010/sep/23/carbon-footprint-new-car</ref><ref>http://environmentalresearchweb.org/cws/article/news/39408</ref><ref>http://www.epiphergy.com/uploads/es702178s-file004.pdf</ref>
   
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Considering the current [[Energy policy of the United States|U.S. energy mix]], a ZEV would produce a 30% reduction in [[carbon dioxide]] emissions.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.treehugger.com/files/2008/04/plug-in-hybrid-cars-co2-emissions-electricity-energy.php |title=Plug-in Hybrid Cars: Chart of CO2 Emissions Ranked by Power Source |publisher=TreeHugger |date=|accessdate=2010-04-18}}</ref><ref>http://www.eia.doe.gov/pub/oiaf/1605/cdrom/pdf/e-supdoc.pdf</ref><ref name="Eia.doe.gov">{{Cite web|url=http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epm/table1_1.html|title=Electric Power Monthly -Table 1.1. Net Generation by Energy Source |publisher=Eia.doe.gov |date= |accessdate=2010-04-18}}</ref> Given the current energy mixes in other countries, it has been predicted that such emissions would decrease by 40% in the [[U.K.]],<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.myelectriccar.com.au/co2.html |title=Less CO2 |publisher=My Electric Car |date= |accessdate=2010-04-18}}</ref> and 19% in [[People's Republic of China|China]].<ref>http://www.mckinsey.com/locations/greaterchina/mckonchina/pdfs/China_Charges_Up.pdf</ref>
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==Types of zero-emission vehicles==
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[[File:Nissan Leaf 005.JPG|thumb|right|The [[Nissan Leaf]] [[electric car]] is a zero emission vehicle (ZEV) that was launched in the market at the end of 2010.]]
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Ordinary [[bicycle]]s, [[recumbent bicycle]]s, and other derivatives as [[velomobile]]s, [[cabin cycle]]s and [[freight bicycle]]s are probably the most well known zero-emissions transport surface vehicles.<!-- Deleted image removed: [[File:Optimal-Energy-Joule.jpg|thumb|180px|right|Optimal Energy's [[Optimal Energy Joule|Joule]] is an electric six-seater car that is planned to be mass produced in [[South Africa]] from 2010.]] -->
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Besides these [[Human-powered transport|human-powered vehicles]], [[Animal-powered transport|animal powered vehicles]] and [[Electric vehicle|battery electric vehicles]] (which besides [[Battery electric vehicle|cars]] also feature [[Electric airplane|aircraft]], electric boats, ...) also do not emit any of the above pollutants, nor any CO<sub>2</sub> gases during use. Of course, this is a particularly important quality in densely populated areas, where the [[health]] of residents can be severely affected. However, the production of the fuels that power ZEVs, such as the production of [[hydrogen]] from [[fossil fuels]], may produce more emissions per mile than the emissions produced from a conventional fossil fueled vehicle.<ref>http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2003-03/miot-msh031003.php</ref> A [[well-to-wheel]] [[life cycle assessment]] is necessary to understand the emissions implications associated with operating a ZEV.
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Other zero emission vehicle technologies include [[plug-in hybrids]] (e.g. [[Internal combustion engine|ICE]]/[[electric battery]]) when in electric mode, some [[plug-in hybrids]] in both recharging and electric mode (e.g. [[fuel cell]]/[[electric battery]], [[PHEV|compressed air engine/electric battery]]), [[Liquid nitrogen economy|liquid nitrogen vehicles]], [[hydrogen vehicle]]s (utilizing [[fuel cell]]s or [[ICE fuel conversion|converted internal combustion engines]]), and [[compressed air vehicle]]s typically recharged by slow (home) or fast (road station) electric compressors, [[flywheel energy storage]] vehicles, [[Solar vehicle|solar powered cars]], and [[tribrid]]s.
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[[Segway PT|Segway Personal Transporters]] are two-wheeled, self-balancing, battery-powered machines that are eleven times more energy-efficient than the average American car. Operating on two lithium-ion batteries, the Segway PT produces zero emissions during operation, and utilizes a negligible amount of electricity while charging via a standard wall outlet.<ref>[http://www.segway.com/efficiency Whitepaper "The Role of the Segway PT in Emissions Reduction"]</ref>
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Finally, especially for boats (although [[Wind-powered_vehicle|ground vessels]] operating on wind exist (using wind turbine and [[Kite buggying|kite]]) and other [[watercraft]], [[Sail|regular]] and special sails (as [[Flettner ship|rotorsails]], [[wing sail]]s, [[Turbosail|turbo sails]], [[SkySails|skysails]] exist that can propel it emissionless. Also, for larger ships (as tankers, container vessels, ...), [[Nuclear marine propulsion#Civil|nuclear power]] is also used (though not commonly).
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===Current vehicles in common public transport===
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[[Electric locomotive|Electric trains]], [[High-speed rail]], [[Subway (rail)|subways]], sail-powered boats, [[trolleybus]]es, [[Electric tram|trams]], [[Electric vehicle|electric buses]], and [[cycle rickshaw]]s.
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===Current vehicles in common private transport===
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[[Battery electric vehicle|Electric cars]], [[Battery electric vehicle|electric boats]], sail-powered boats, [[bicycle]]s, [[recumbent bicycle]]s, [[velomobile]]s, [[cabin cycle]]s, [[freight bicycle]]s
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==Incentives==
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{{Expand section|date=June 2008}}
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{{See also|Plug-in electric vehicle#Tax incentives for PEVs by country|l1=Subsidies and tax incentives by country}}
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===Subsidies for public transport===
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Japanese public transport is being driven in the direction of zero emissions due to growing environmental concern. Honda has launched a conceptual bus which features exercise machines to the rear of the vehicle to generate [[kinetic energy]] used for propulsion.
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Due to the stop-start nature of idling in public transport, [[regenerative braking]] may be a possibility for public transport systems of the future. After all, public transport costs councils money, so money well spent on saving fuel is money saved.
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===Subsidies for development of electric cars===
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In an attempt to curb carbon [[Air pollution|emissions]] as well as [[noise pollution]] in [[South Africa|South African cities]], the South African Department of Science & Technology (DST), as well as other private investments, have made US$5 million available through the [[Innovation Fund]] for the development of the [[Optimal Energy Joule|Joule]]. The [[Optimal Energy Joule|Joule]] is a five seater car, planned to be released in 2014.<ref>http://www.optimalenergy.co.za</ref>
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==See also==
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*[[Personal automated transport]]
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*[[Future of the car]]
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*[[Hybrid vehicle]]
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*[[Low-carbon fuel standard]]
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*[[Miles per gallon gasoline equivalent]]
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*[[Partial zero-emissions vehicle]]
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*[[Plug-in hybrid]]
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*[[Super Ultra Low Emission Vehicle]]
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*[[Shweeb]]
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*[[Tesla Motors]]
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*[[Coda Automotive]]
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*[[Tier (emission standard)]]
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*[[Low emission vehicle]]
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*[[Ultra Low Emission Vehicle]]
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*''[[Who Killed the Electric Car?]]'', a documentary
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*[[Zero carbon city]]
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*[[Zero emission]]
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*[[ZENN]] (Zero Emission, No Noise)
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*[[Optimal Energy Joule]]
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==References==
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{{Reflist|2}}
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==External links==
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*[http://www.driveclean.ca.gov Official California site on ZEVs and PZEVs]
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*[http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?chanID=sa006&articleID=00065437-FFF8-14E5-BFF883414B7F0000 New Scientific American article]
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*[http://www.arb.ca.gov/msprog/zevprog/factsheets/2003zevchanges.pdf 2003 Zero Emission Vehicle Program Changes], a CARB factsheet
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*[http://www.calstart.org/Homepage.aspx CALSTART]
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{{Climate control}}
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[[Category:Green Travel]]
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[[Category:Hybrid Vehicles]]
 
[[Category:Science and Technology]]
 
[[Category:Science and Technology]]

Revision as of 01:34, December 11, 2012

A zero-emissions vehicle, or ZEV, is a vehicle that emits no tailpipe pollutants from the onboard source of power.[1][2] Harmful pollutants to the health and the environment include particulates (soot), hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, ozone, lead, and various oxides of nitrogen. Although not considered emission pollutants by the original California Air Resources Board (CARB) or U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) definitions, the most recent common use of the term also includes volatile organic compounds, several air toxics, and global pollutants such as carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases.[3] Examples of zero emission vehicles include muscle-powered vehicles such as bicycles; battery electric vehicles, which typically shift emissions to the location where the electricity is generated e.g. coal or natural gas power plant;[4] and fuel cell vehicles powered by hydrogen, which typically shift emissions to the location where the hydrogen is generated. Hydrogen-powered vehicles are not strictly zero-emissions, as they do emit water or water vapor, although they are still usually included in this category. Emissions from the manufacturing process are ignored in this definition, although more emissions are created during manufacture than during a vehicle's operating lifetime.[5][6][7]

Terminology

File:MHV Reva Electric 02.jpg
File:FCX Clarity.jpg

Well-to-wheel emissions

The term zero-emissions or ZEV, as originally coined by the California Air Resources Board (CARB), refers only to tailpipe pollutants from the onboard source of power. Therefore CARB's definition is accounting only for pollutants emitted at the point of the vehicle operation, and the clean air benefits are usually local because depending on the source of the electricity used to recharge the batteries, air pollutant emissions are shifted to the location of the electricity generation plants.[8]

In a similar manner, a zero-emissions vehicle does not emit greenhouse gases from the onboard source of power at the point of operation, but a well-to-wheel assessment takes into account the carbon dioxide and other emissions produced during electricity generation, and therefore, the extent of the real benefit depends on the fuel and technology used for electricity generation. From the perspective of a full life cycle analysis, the electricity used to recharge the batteries must be generated from renewable or clean sources such as wind, solar, hydroelectric, or nuclear power for ZEVs to have almost none or zero well-to-wheel emissions.[8][9] On the other hand, if ZEVs are recharged from electricity exclusively generated by coal-fired plants, they produce more greenhouse gas emissions than if not.[10]

Other countries have a different definition of ZEV, noteworthy the more recent inclusion of greenhouse gases, as many European rules now regulate carbon dioxide CO2 emissions. CARB role in regulating greenhouse gases began in 2004 based on the 2002 Pavley Act (AB 1493), but blocked by lawsuits and by EPA in 2007, by rejecting the required waiver. Additional responsibilities were granted to CARB by California's Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (AB 32), which includes the mandate to set low-carbon fuel standards.[8]

As a result of an investigation into false advertising regarding "zero-emissions" claims, the Advertising Standards Authority (ASA) in the UK ruled in March 2010 to ban an advertisement from Renault UK regarding it's "zero-emissions vehicles" because the ad breached CAP (Broadcast) TV Code rules 5.1.1, 5.1.2 (Misleading advertising) and 5.2.1 (Misleading advertising- Evidence) and 5.2.6 (Misleading advertising-Environmental claims.)[11]

Greenhouse gasses and other pollutant emissions are generated by vehicle manufacturing processes. The emissions from manufacture are many factors larger than the emissions from tailpipes, even in gasoline engine vehicles. Most reports on ZEV's impact to the climate do not take into account these manufacturing emissions.[12][13][14]

Considering the current U.S. energy mix, a ZEV would produce a 30% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions.[15][16][17] Given the current energy mixes in other countries, it has been predicted that such emissions would decrease by 40% in the U.K.,[18] and 19% in China.[19]

Types of zero-emission vehicles

File:Nissan Leaf 005.JPG

Ordinary bicycles, recumbent bicycles, and other derivatives as velomobiles, cabin cycles and freight bicycles are probably the most well known zero-emissions transport surface vehicles.

Besides these human-powered vehicles, animal powered vehicles and battery electric vehicles (which besides cars also feature aircraft, electric boats, ...) also do not emit any of the above pollutants, nor any CO2 gases during use. Of course, this is a particularly important quality in densely populated areas, where the health of residents can be severely affected. However, the production of the fuels that power ZEVs, such as the production of hydrogen from fossil fuels, may produce more emissions per mile than the emissions produced from a conventional fossil fueled vehicle.[20] A well-to-wheel life cycle assessment is necessary to understand the emissions implications associated with operating a ZEV.

Other zero emission vehicle technologies include plug-in hybrids (e.g. ICE/electric battery) when in electric mode, some plug-in hybrids in both recharging and electric mode (e.g. fuel cell/electric battery, compressed air engine/electric battery), liquid nitrogen vehicles, hydrogen vehicles (utilizing fuel cells or converted internal combustion engines), and compressed air vehicles typically recharged by slow (home) or fast (road station) electric compressors, flywheel energy storage vehicles, solar powered cars, and tribrids.

Segway Personal Transporters are two-wheeled, self-balancing, battery-powered machines that are eleven times more energy-efficient than the average American car. Operating on two lithium-ion batteries, the Segway PT produces zero emissions during operation, and utilizes a negligible amount of electricity while charging via a standard wall outlet.[21]

Finally, especially for boats (although ground vessels operating on wind exist (using wind turbine and kite) and other watercraft, regular and special sails (as rotorsails, wing sails, turbo sails, skysails exist that can propel it emissionless. Also, for larger ships (as tankers, container vessels, ...), nuclear power is also used (though not commonly).

Current vehicles in common public transport

Electric trains, High-speed rail, subways, sail-powered boats, trolleybuses, trams, electric buses, and cycle rickshaws.

Current vehicles in common private transport

Electric cars, electric boats, sail-powered boats, bicycles, recumbent bicycles, velomobiles, cabin cycles, freight bicycles

Incentives

Subsidies for public transport

Japanese public transport is being driven in the direction of zero emissions due to growing environmental concern. Honda has launched a conceptual bus which features exercise machines to the rear of the vehicle to generate kinetic energy used for propulsion.

Due to the stop-start nature of idling in public transport, regenerative braking may be a possibility for public transport systems of the future. After all, public transport costs councils money, so money well spent on saving fuel is money saved.

Subsidies for development of electric cars

In an attempt to curb carbon emissions as well as noise pollution in South African cities, the South African Department of Science & Technology (DST), as well as other private investments, have made US$5 million available through the Innovation Fund for the development of the Joule. The Joule is a five seater car, planned to be released in 2014.[22]

See also

References

  1. California Air Resources Board (2009-03-09). Glossary of Air Pollution Terms: ZEV. Retrieved on 2009-04-21.
  2. Christine & Scott Gable. What is a ZEV - Zero Emissions Vehicle?. About.com: Hybrid Carts & Alt Fuels. Retrieved on 2008-04-21.
  3. Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center. Alternative & Advanced Vehicles: Pollutants and Health. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, US DOE. Retrieved on 2009-04-21.
  4. http://www.sierraclub.org/coal/map/
  5. http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/green-living-blog/2010/sep/23/carbon-footprint-new-car
  6. http://environmentalresearchweb.org/cws/article/news/39408
  7. http://www.epiphergy.com/uploads/es702178s-file004.pdf
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Sperling, Daniel and Deborah Gordon (2009). Two billion cars: driving toward sustainability. Oxford University Press, New York. pp. 22 to 26. ISBN 978-0-19-537664-7. 
  9. David B. Sandalow, ed (2009). Plug-In Electric Vehicles: What Role for Washington? (1st. ed.). The Brookings Institution. pp. 2–5. ISBN 978-0-8157-0305-1. http://www.brookings.edu/press/Books/2009/pluginelectricvehicles.aspx. 
  10. Palm, Erik (2009-05-01). Study: Electric cars not as green as you think | Green Tech - CNET News. News.cnet.com. Retrieved on 2010-04-18.
  11. ASA Adjudication on Renault UK Ltd
  12. http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/green-living-blog/2010/sep/23/carbon-footprint-new-car
  13. http://environmentalresearchweb.org/cws/article/news/39408
  14. http://www.epiphergy.com/uploads/es702178s-file004.pdf
  15. Plug-in Hybrid Cars: Chart of CO2 Emissions Ranked by Power Source. TreeHugger. Retrieved on 2010-04-18.
  16. http://www.eia.doe.gov/pub/oiaf/1605/cdrom/pdf/e-supdoc.pdf
  17. Electric Power Monthly -Table 1.1. Net Generation by Energy Source. Eia.doe.gov. Retrieved on 2010-04-18.
  18. Less CO2. My Electric Car. Retrieved on 2010-04-18.
  19. http://www.mckinsey.com/locations/greaterchina/mckonchina/pdfs/China_Charges_Up.pdf
  20. http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2003-03/miot-msh031003.php
  21. Whitepaper "The Role of the Segway PT in Emissions Reduction"
  22. http://www.optimalenergy.co.za

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